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“Social Theory” by Roberta Garner and Black Hawk Hancock

Critical Analysis

In contemporary society, the theoretical structures are evolving due to the constant changing of social trends and values amongst people. This reflection essay intends to provide a critical analysis of Roberta Garner and Black Hawk Hancock’s perspective of gender and sexuality in their book “Social Theory, a reader, Vol II: From Modern to Contemporary Theory” (Social Theory, Volume II, n.d.).

Garner and Hancock have explained the changes of social theories from modern theories to contemporary theories in their book. Garner and Hancock view that individual choices are changing with the changing of time. The historical circumstances and aging process massively contribute to the changing of social theories in contemporary society. On the other hand, according to my perspective technology is the biggest component that is bringing change to social trends and choices. Gender and sexuality are the massive social categories that have suffered these massive changes. Garner and Hancock reflect upon the changing dynamics of gender and sexuality in chapter 14. Garner and Hancock’s viewpoint explains that the individual choices and perspectives of the readers shape the changes of social concepts from modern to contemporary theories. Gender and sexuality play a significant role in the foundation of social theories in contemporary society. According to the writers, social demographic categories such as gender and sexuality are highly unstable in nature. This means that gender and sexuality can change with different individual choices. I agree with the viewpoint of gender and sexuality as socially constructed identities. This viewpoint can be validated by different sexual identities which are based upon sexual relationships (homogenous, heterogeneous, Gay, and Lesbian). Nowadays, sexuality and gender are not perceived by a person’s physical structure, but by the socialization and the individual choices of the person. In a nutshell, Garner and Hancock profoundly reflect upon the social reality of gender and sexuality in the contemporary theories of this era.


Social Theory, Volume II: From Modern to Contemporary Theory, Third Edition (Paperback). (n.d.). Walmart.Com. Retrieved October 8, 2021, from



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