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Phone Usage Effects on Sleeping Annotated Bibliography

For a person to live a healthy life, it is imperative to have enough sleep. It is apparent that most people in contemporary society do not have enough sleep and that has a negative impact on their lives. The advancement in technology brings some advantages as well as disadvantages. For instance, individuals, mostly youths tend to embrace social media, and that deprives them of the necessary amount of sleep to improve their wellbeing. Parents are not up to the task since they pay much attention to their work and fail to cater for the emotional support. Lack of awareness is the main cause of the problem, and there is need to inform students as well as parents on the negative impact use of social media. The annotated bibliography describes the significance of various sources and expounds on how they add value to the research.

Adams, Sue K., et al. “Article Commentary: Adolescent Sleep and Cellular Phone Use: Recent Trends and Implications for Research.” Health Services Insights, vol. 6, 2013, p. HSI.S11083.

Table of Contents

According to Adams et al., every adolescent needs to get enough sleep, and that mostly ranges from 8 to 10 hours. The older you get, the less amount of sleep you require. That brings on the possibility of the parents offering the necessary insight on how to handle key aspects related to sleep deprivation. Adams et al. further posit that Americans adolescents receive less sleep and that is on average 8 hours. On school nights, most students are likely to spend less than 6 hours, and that presents a negative impact on their health. Even though technology advances, it is apparent that the use of cellular phones is the main cause of sleep deprivation and that is common with the existence of smartphones. Teens are likely to spend much time on social media platforms, and that impacts negatively on their life as well as in the era of cyberbullying.

The source is of much help since it analyzes the issue based on different parts and that provides a comprehensive understanding of the matter. Moreover, researchers are likely to communicate the information in the best manner possible. First, the ability to describe the sleep pattern makes it possible to relate to the mental as well as physical health. Moreover, the ability to explore the current technological advancements makes it possible to understand the nature of technology and the specific tools which contribute to the deprivation. The platforms explored in the source includes Facebook and Twitter, and they are indeed among the most harmful sites to teenagers. Research is never simple, and the ability to understand the challenges is also imperative. The research is helpful in such an aspect since it articulates on the barriers involved and the ability to offer suggestions further makes it needful. The ability to create a correlation with the healthcare providers makes the research comprehensive, and that is vital.

American Psychiatry Organisation. “Social Media Use Tied to Sleep Problems and Depression.” Home │, 2018, Accessed 6 Mar. 2018.

According to American Psychiatry Organization, the number of time young adults spend on their phones is the main reason for the sleep problems that they experience. One of the risks associated with the same is depression which effects on mental as well as physical health of such individuals. The research uses quantitative methods to bring the correlation on social media usage among young adults to ascertain on aspects related to depression as well as sleep disturbance. It is apparent from the research that more than 30 percent of young adults face challenges related to the sleep disorder. The main cause of sleep disorder according to the article relates to the amount of time such individuals spend on social media. It is the responsibility of parents to always check on their children.

Ideally, the research is significant since it identifies a link and that is helpful in exploring the issue under consideration. The research also gives examples related to the issue, and that helps in providing more insight and making the research applicable in different setups. The ability to provide various possibilities on how an ideal life should seem like makes it possible to apply the matter under consideration in real life. Even though such benefits exist throughout the research, the only limitation that is still apparent is the inability to relate to the cause and effect. That is however solved with the provision of the positive as well as negative effects of extensive use of social media. The ability of the research to collaborate with other bodies in finding a way to leverage between smartphone usage and provision of the ways to solve the help complications adds to the body of research.

Breus, Michael J. “Tweeting, Not Sleeping? What Is Your Social Media/Sleep Balance?” HuffPost, 2 Feb. 2017, Accessed 6 Mar. 2018.

According to Breus, the advancement in technology has been fixed on the lives of most people in the contemporary society. People are more connected than before. However, the main concern is the nature of the information connected to such a platform. Even though the utilization of social media keeps people in touch, it is imperative to understand its impact on sleep and health. Night rest requires enough time, and that is an aspect that over-utilization of the social media thwarts. It is evident that young people are most affected since they are the heavy users of such a platform. The research creates the correlation between social media usage and sleep disorder. The research banks on quantitative media and the outcome confirm on the negative implications of social media on the lives of individuals. Most of the findings are from healthcare facilities, and that helps in creating a better understanding.

The research is of much help due to the ability to create a correlation regarding the relationship involving social media usage as well as sleep disruption. The cause and effect approach is apparent, and it is not necessary to explore it in most instances. The inability to explore the driving force is given room for further research. The source will be used in exploring all the relationship that exist during research and that makes it possible to improve the body of knowledge. It is necessary to understand all the dimensions of research since it makes it possible to know on what to improve on through the exploitation of the research limitations.

BRUNBORG, GEIR S. et al. “The relationship between media use in the bedroom, sleep habits and symptoms of insomnia.” Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 20, no. 4, 2011, pp. 569-575.

The main focus of the author is the use of media in the bedroom and its implication on sleep disorder. The use of quantitative approach in the design is helpful in formulating ideologies based on the topic. It is apparent from the study that participants utilized cellphones on weekdays and weekends and that greatly compromised their health. In any instance, it is imperative to have an understanding of symptoms associated with most incidences. The use of mobiles phones, for instance, is helpful and mostly make it possible to address key concerns related to the case. It is imperative for parents to ensure proper guidance. Children may be fast to act and explore key aspects of technological advancements. However, failure to understand all the dynamics involved is helpful in creating a deeper understanding of the case. The outcome of the findings indicates that no differences exist when exploring symptoms of insomnia. Poor sleep habits mostly result when a person fails to create necessary time to rest. The ability to distract the mind just before sleep makes it hard to get quality sleep, and that mostly affect the health of most individuals.

The source is helpful for the research since it helps in expounding on the symptoms in the instance. In any study, it is imperative to understand the symptoms associated with the case since it is helpful in treating the case. In fostering further research, it is necessary to have a correlation and have a clear understanding of the issue. Children might present different realities, and there is need to ensure a better platform for handling the case. Such a significance will cut across key aspects of research, and that will create a clear basis for research.

Buysse, Daniel J., et al. “Development and Validation of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairments.” Sleep, vol. 33, no. 6, 2010, pp. 781-792.

The focus of this research is the development of various questions that relate to sleep disorder. Moreover, there is the development of key items that relate to the archive. The use of classic validation techniques together with the response theory analysis helps in finding the case in various participants. The research banks on a cross-sectional report which is individual and that helps in providing a comprehensive finding of the issue. The setting for the research is academic and focuses on the medical center. The inclusive of the participants’ homes make it possible to get comprehensive information, which is still helpful in the case. Most of the participants for the research originated from the internet samples, and that made it possible to create a clear correlation with the actual findings. The interventions for the research were not specified.

The source is useful, and further research plans to use it to expound on the actual occurrences on the internet. It is apparent that the platform used for the research plays a crucial role in validating the findings. It becomes possible to find actual findings from the participants from the individuals. Measurement is also a crucial instance to evaluate and implement in research. The source is helpful in finding the degree of the case. It is possible to include findings in future research that are accurate and informative.

Cain, Neralie, and Michael Gradisar. “Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.” Sleep Medicine, vol. 11, no. 8, 2010, pp. 735-742.

According to Cain and Michael, the implication of electronic media are disastrous on the lives of individuals in various parts of the world. It is necessary to have the right processes into consideration that will improve on key aspects of the society. Children, as well as adolescents, should have enough sleep to improve the functionality of various organs. However, the deprivation is the main challenge that should be addressed at the best time. Even though the study tends to explore on 36 different papers addressing the same concern, it is not comprehensive enough, and that is the main cause of failure while articulating key aspects. According to the findings, delayed bedtime as well as inadequate time to sleep is the main challenges involved in the process.

Even though the study faces such limitations articulated above, it is still helpful in creating a broader knowledge in the area and the research banks on the existing model of mechanisms. Ideally, the ability to express such findings diagrammatically and make them understandable among various stakeholders is key in doing the research used in the contemporary society. It is evident that certain proposals lack the best insight to convey the message appropriately. It is not enough to use words in expressing key findings of the research. The demand is achieved through the use of the source, and that adds value to the research.

Choi, Kwisook, et al. “Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents.” Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 63, no. 4, 2009, pp. 455-462.

Choi et al. tend to offer a comprehensive understanding of the relationship that exists between overusing the internet among youths and the excessive daytime sleepiness. The study is also quantitative and based in South Korea. The use of the Young Internet addiction approach makes it possible to evaluate all the correlations that exist in the research. Boys are addicted to the internet more than girls and that also promoted boys to indulge in other drug and substance abuse. For instance, most boys had to drink too much alcohol. As a result, the issue affected their health and compromised on key aspects of their health. From the study, it is apparent that internet addiction not only contributes to sleepiness during the day but also contributed to the indulgent into other unethical activities such as drug and substance abuse. Hence, it is imperative for stakeholders such as clinicians and parents to offer guidance on matters related to internet usage.

In every research, it is imperative to a control experiment that offers insight into the other body of knowledge. Most of the sources tend to explore the impact of internet usage on sleep deprivation. However, the particular source is of much importance since the focus is on sleepiness during the day. It is possible to extend the effects of excessive internet usage to the life of the teenagers during the day. As a consequence, it is possible to have a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon and make it possible in addressing all the dynamics of research.

Davies, Sue. “Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning.” Primary Health Care, vol. 20, no. 3, 2010, pp. 14-14.

It is evident that adolescents in most fail to get the necessary sleep that they may need. Mostly, such individuals get involved in media and technology during bedtimes. The source banks on the pilot study to explore on nighttime technology as well as the amount of caffeine that these individuals take to the sleep disorder that they present. The issue is extensive and not only affect sleep duration but also the behavior that these individuals exhibit during the day. Why should a person consume caffeine to utilize the digital technology? It is apparent that adolescents are willing to stay awake longer at night just to chat with their peers and that affects their behavior the next day since they feel tired and unproductive. The research banks on quantitative data to understand the needs of these individuals and that helps in communicating a substantial meaning. According to the source, it is evident that multitasking index close relates to sleep. The ability to have enough sleep at night enables the individuals to concentrate during the day and also manage to multitask. Humans must learn to stay awake in handling different tasks.

The source is helpful in the research since it brings a new element. The aspect of caffeine makes it possible to create a correlation of what most adolescents will require staying awake. Ideally, the body must function in the right way, and lack of sleep signals certain aspects. Hence, it will be articulated that adolescents use caffeine to make them in apposition of staying longer without sleep. That brings the sense of a trigger in the research to get the ultimate demand.

El-Sheikh, Mona. Sleep and Development: Familial and Socio-Cultural Considerations. Oxford UP, 2011.

Families also contribute to the sleep disorder among children since they fail to offer the right parental guide to foster growth. Children and likely to learn from tender ages and it is the role of parents to offer the right guidance on most occasions. However, such parents fail to offer the necessary guidance and that make such children vulnerable. Even though the contemporary society keeps advancing regarding the utilization of technology, it is imperative to learn the contribution of various agents in the process. It is known that parents are first agents of socialization. Hence, it is imperative to understand their contribution to the process. In most cases, blames are placed on change, which is inevitable in the first place. How best the society can address change stands to improve it or destroy it. However, in most instances, people tend to think that change is bad and don’t want to associate with it. It is possible to embrace technological advancements still and still have a productive life. All that is required is strict rules for parents to enable their children to develop a habit of moving to bed at the right. Even though socialization is necessary, there is the need for limits to ensure quality in whatever transpires in any case.

The source is helpful in building the counter-argument of the research. It stands out that technology alone is not the main cause of sleep disorder. Some other factors such as lack of involvement into the menace also make the condition to thrive. Parents should be able to act at the right time and nurture their children. That is not possible in most cases since such parents are the same ones to buy the gadgets for their children. Ideally, buying such is not the problem. The most important step is to set principles and procedures of how to use the devices. That will bring a sense of control and make it possible in meeting the set goals of the society.

Garett, Renee, et al. “The relationship between social media use and sleep quality among undergraduate students.” Information, Communication & Society, vol. 21, no. 2, 2016, pp. 163-173.

Most university students prefer staying online and mostly the freshman. That attributes to the access to the Wi-Fi as well as smartphones. The research is specific to the first years in college, and that makes it more specific. Still, the group falls under teens, and the impact cuts across. Currently, individuals value fame and will tweet as many posts as possible. Moreover, the number of followers has increased on Facebook, and such individuals are always alert to engage such followers. According to the study, it was found that students with active Twitter accounts faced challenges during the day since they spend a lot of time at night tweeting. The incident has a negative impact on their wellbeing since they find it an uphill task meeting the set demands.

The source is helpful in the sense that future research will tend to focus on college students. That will call for specific findings. The research will help in providing specific insights among various University students. As a consequence, it is possible to enrich the body of knowledge as well as future research. Moreover, it becomes possible to expound on social media utilization since the source banks on Twitter. Such usage has the same implications with Facebook. That makes it possible to explore the nature of the research and made a better understanding.

Hogenboom, Melissa. “The Vital Time You Shouldn’t Be on Social Media.” BBC – Homepage, 2018, Accessed 6 Mar. 2018.

On average, it stands that teens in various parts of the world spend on average 8 hours in front of the screen. That is just the amount of time spent on social media platforms. Can you imagine the whole time such individuals spend in front of the screen chatting and doing homework? It is significant and makes it hard for such individuals to have enough sleep. In the UK, children as young as four years get access to tablets as well as internet connection. Such children are in a position to register to various social media platform and make friends. They also work hard to keep such friends, and that makes it necessary to spend hours glued to their screens. The outcome of such involvement is anxiety as well as depression, which makes such children vulnerable to some instances. For instance, they are likely to perform poorly in academics, and that can affect their future lives. Having a “me” time is such helpful in enabling the mind to reflect on what works best and rejuvenate as well. The source articulates on the need to moderate while addressing most aspects related to social media. That is the first approach to fostering growth as well as the success of individuals. According to the source, it is not a bad move to use social media. However, the timing approach is the most crucial aspect that should be embraced in most occasions.

The sources are very useful and will reinforce the research in some ways. First, it agrees with the fact that nothing is bad but requires a little of motivations. That is the same point argued in the counter of the proposal. Hence, it will be possible to elaborate the same in other parts of the research in ensuring comprehensive findings to foster meaning. At any given instance, the users of social media, for instance, should understand the negative consequences and ensure that its applicability is restricted to certain times. For instance, it is mandatory to have time for sleep to ensure the brain have some rest. That plays a crucial role in fostering productivity.

Kochrekar, Manjiri. “Sleep Disorders In Teens – 5 Causes And 10 Symptoms.” MomJunction, 9 Mar. 2017, Accessed 6 Mar. 2018.

Kochrekar focuses on some aspects which are likely to create sleep disorder among teens. It is noted that proper growth and development during teenage is helpful in the future life of the child. Hence, there is the need for proper sleep to help in the development of key organs. The sleep disorder can arise due to some causes as articulated in the article and the symptoms are many as well. Researchers should not be myopic while addressing the incident since technology alone is not the main cause. Sometimes, it is imperative to understand the environment that the child got involved in before going to bed. That is helpful since there are chances for frustration as well as stress that might limit a person from sleeping. Moreover. Lighting within the premise can also be a major challenge making it an uphill task to get quality sleep. Whichever the case, it is imperative to find the cause of the instance and work on the best ways to solve it. That will improve the health of the child in some ways.

Just like other sources used, the particular source will help in reinforcing the fact that technology alone is not the main cause of sleep disorder. The source will serve as a counter-argument, and that helps in creating a better understanding of the topic. The topic becomes comprehensive enough to handle key societal problems and the contribution of various individuals in enhancing success while addressing the case. The source is more of a counter-argument, and that is also helpful in ensuring a broader analysis of the research question. It is not proper to base on one aspect while making concerns about the project since the same can impact negatively on the ultimate success of the research. Moreover, it might become hard to validate findings due to the narrow scope.

Levenson, Jessica C., et al. “The association between social media use and sleep disturbance among young adults.” Preventive Medicine, vol. 85, 2016, pp. 36-41.

Levenson et al. agree to the fact that some instances are the reason for sleep disturbance among teenagers. However, the overutilization of social media is the main challenge since teenagers get addicted to the same and that presents a negative impact on their lives. Many factors contribute to sleep disturbance among young adults. Social media (SM) use is increasing rapidly, and little is known regarding its association with sleep disturbance. The source uses quantitative research, and the outcome confirms the fact that social media platforms have the worst addiction and individuals must learn how best to strike a balance when communicating in such a platform. The platform is cheap, and that makes it preferred among many users. What is the remedy for such a menace? Ideally, the ball turns back to the parents as well as every caregiver. The focus should be on moderating time spent communicating in such platforms.

The source will also help in building on the counter argument. In fact, it is the best source since it agrees to the fact social media is the main cause of sleep disorder. However, some other causes exist and it is imperative to consolidate all the sources and make it possible to approach the research from a broader approach. The topic is of much importance since teenagers are the future leaders. They should obtain the best space for growth and development to have a positive impact on the society. The situation should have limiting factors which makes it possible to grow such personalities.

Lund, Hannah G., et al. “Sleep Patterns and Predictors of Disturbed Sleep in a Large Population of College Students.” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 46, no. 2, 2010, pp. 124-132.

It is not prudent to restrict research to the lower part of the population. Lund et al. tend to explore the sleep patterns through an examination of the older adolescents. Moreover, the source tends to exploit the predictors involved in such an instance. The study also makes use of the quantitative data to elaborate on key aspects affecting the population. Even though students indicates the poor sleeping pattern, it was apparent that the case over the weekends was extreme and such individuals remained unproductive the entire weekend. The approach reinforces on the fact that students are addicted to the extent that they don’t prioritize time for leisure and instead dedicate their time to such events. The rise in the physical and mental health of the participants kept deteriorating, and that made it an uphill task achieving various aspects of life. It is also apparent that tension is stress are among the other factors contributing to the case.

The source is helpful in elaborating on other causes of sleep disorder among individuals, and mostly the adolescents. The aspect of the irregular sleep-wake pattern is of much significance. That elaborates on the fact that adolescents are willing to sacrifice their time for what gives them maximum satisfaction without really considering the implication of the same. Hence, the source is helpful in making radical changes which should apply in improving the living standard of individuals.

Mark, Gloria, et al. “Sleep Debt in Student Life.” Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI ’16, 2016.

Should you suffer the consequence of something which is likely to create more harm than good in your life? Mark et al. create a relationship between lack of enough sleep and involvement in a criminal activity that might hurt the wellbeing of a person. In such an instance, there is the correlation that exists between what a person should engage in and that which is likely to create more harm. It is evident that the world of computing requires individuals to remain innovative. However, that should not rob every one of the time needed to have rest and spend with the family. Prioritizing activities is necessary for getting the best out of every course.

From the source, the aspect of prioritizing will help in offering necessary solutions as well as recommendations to improve the nature as well as the quality of the research. It is apparent that every research should advise on the best cause of action, and this particular one as well will elaborate on the same to foster understanding to improve on key elements. The topic is indeed sensitive, and it will not be proper to elaborate on the issue without making it known, the best solution to improve the well-being of adolescents. The existence of such recommendation will also add on the body of knowledge and researcher can further bank on them in creating better solutions since modernization and globalization keep shaping the society.

National Sleep Foundation. “2005 Adult Sleep Habits and Styles.” National Sleep Foundation – Sleep Research & Education, 2018, Accessed 6 Mar. 2018.

There is a recommendation of the number of hours that a person should sleep and that depends on some factors. The study conducted by the National Sleep Foundation tend to offer comprehensive research that aims at finding the best duration a person should sleep. Ideally, the figures exist, but the researchers wanted to update such due to changes in environmental conditions as well as the aspect of globalization. The study takes care of professionals from the organization, and the use of the RAND/UCLA approach makes it possible to have a better basis for argument. According to the findings, newborns should sleep for at least 14 hours. Infants need at least 12 hours to get quality sleep. Toddlers should sleep for around 11 hours to remain vigilant. Teenagers, which is the epicenter of the study should have at least 8 hours of sleep. Young adults, as well as adults, should sleep for at least 7 hours.

The findings from the source are vital in updating the research figure as well. Even though some research exist on the topic, most of the figures are outdated, and that is the main reason for misleading research. The particular one will help in providing updates information, and that justifies their use in various occasions. Data is such a crucial part of research, and it is mandatory to update it on a regular basis. That is the best way to get information that conveys the right meaning. People can find it misleading to have figures which are not proven, and that is the main reason for doubt in most research. That is solved with the help of figures from National Sleep Foundation.

Sadeh, Avi, et al. “The Effects of Sleep Restriction and Extension on School-Age Children: What a Difference an Hour Makes.” Child Development, vol. 74, no. 2, 2003, pp. 444-455.

Children can get voluntary as well as involuntary sleep restrictions. Sadeh et al. expounds on the impact of such a move and relate it to the neurobehavioral functioning. The study also takes good use of the quantitative data to find the value associated with the demands of children in most occasions. The outcome was helpful in fostering a deeper understanding of the case, and that helped in understanding factors around sleep deprivation. The existence of sleep restrictions is helpful since they contribute to an improvement on sleep quality and that also improve on the health of individuals in most instances.

The particular source is helpful since it tests some hypotheses and provides justifications based on the various hypotheses. That is helpful since it offers solutions to the problem. That stands as one of the crucial steps to be taken in creating change in the society and parents as well as caregivers should offer a helping hand.

Siegel, Daniel. “This Is What Happens to Your Brain and Body When You Check Your Smartphone before Bed.” YouTube, Science Insider, 4 Mar. 2015,

The brain and the body needs to get a sense of relaxation before bed. The exposure to smartphones before bed is the main reason for sleep disorder since the brain becomes actively involved. The brain is like a computer. Once you put it on, some processes run in the background and such can alter the calm state the computer was before. Hence, it is necessary to refrain from accessing the computers before moving to the bed. That is helpful in creating a greater sense of relaxation.

The source is of significance since it gives a practical understanding of how the human brain works. Hence, it makes it possible to create a correlation between the neural systems as well as that helps in reinforcing the research. Ideally, the sleep disorder is a more of a psychological approach, and there is need to understand all the processes involved. The source will enlighten on such processes, and that builds on the body of research.

Van der Schuur, Winneke A., et al. “Social Media Use, Social Media Stress, and Sleep: Examining Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Adolescents.” Health Communication, 2018, pp. 1-8.

According to Van der Schuur et al., it is not the use of social media that bring about sleep disorder. It is apparent that the level of stress associated with the course makes it hard to sleep. Cyberbullying is real and individuals mostly adolescents are not in a position to cope with the threats they obtain from the internet. Most research tends to find the correlation that exists between variables. That is the same case seen with what the scholar provided. It is clear on the positive impact of stress on the functionality of the brain. Anxiety and stress are concurrent and makes the life of adolescents such a hell. The best approach is the possibility of parents to offer guidance where necessary.

The source is of much use for the research in expounding on the various causes of sleep disorder. It is not possible to explain a concept without having a better understanding of the causes. It is possible to have an elaboration of the topic and bring examples related to the causal. That relies on the use of this particular source by Van der Schuur et al.

In conclusion, all the sources listed are of much significance and ads to the body of the particular research. Every source is helpful in a special way. That is inclusive of the ability to provide updated data for the research such as the number of hours a person should sleep. Moreover, there is a vivid explanation of the variables involved, and that helps in obtaining comprehensive research.



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