Academic Master


Factors Affecting Graduates Opportunities in Oman

1.1 Background of the study

Presently, the issues about the rate of unemployment among the fresh graduates have been as a subject of scholarly discussion. As entrants’ entre job market, a huge number of fresh graduates are unemployed. The majority of the fresh graduates would like to get high wage employment with better working conditions. This is essential for them to be successful so that they can pursue their career path. Other factors that affect employability of fresh graduates include: professional field, prestige and reputation of the college, graduates starting wages as well as individual economic elements. First, most employees look for graduates from a reputable colleges that are no to produce experts and completed individuals who are up to the task. Therefore, if some universities are not valued by the employees then the graduates from that institution will be disadvantaged. Moreover, colleges with integrity and history have been preferred since they are believed to nature the principles if integrity and could their students to become honest. Secondly, graduates’ professional field is a key in their employability. The labor market may demand specific fields, which their graduates may not have (Pauw, Oosthuizen, & Van Der Westhuizen, 2008). For instance, if most employees are looking for graduates who pursue technical courses such as engineering, then the other graduates who did not pursue that who may perhaps may not be need at that time will have to miss job search. Most firms carry out efficient candidate interview to get the best and competent candidates to take the positions. The reason being hiring individuals with the right skills and competence will be beneficial to the organization. The effective accounting system is important in ensuring that the organization is productive and makes the profit. Effective cost management system is important in ensuring that the organization meets its vision and goals while complying with ethical demands as well as corporate social responsibility. Effective cost management system helps in creating a satisfactory organizational performance that gives the company the competitive edge. An organization that is prosperous and has competitive advantage attributes its success to competitive cost management especially those at the top. Therefore, top organizational leadership is expected to understand the environment as well as cost control. Thus, accountants should understand that cost management activity based involves assessing the external environment while designing the organization to meet the rising needs of the customer based on unique market needs. Furthermore, accountants should focus on the use of knowledge and information as the critical resource for achieving competitive advantage in the market. Since the current study does not outline how key resources can be used to achieve competitive advantage, it is necessary for further research to focus on key capabilities and resources of organizations which guarantee strategic advantage in the market.

In the view of Pauw, Oosthuizen, and Van Der Westhuizen (2008), employers conduct a proper selection of candidates for a job position is essential. Most firms carry out efficient candidate interview to get the best and competent candidates to take the positions. The reason being hiring individuals with the right skills and competence will be beneficial to the organization. For instance, the firm will be able to achieve profitability and productivity. The proper interview also helps in eliminating incompetent candidates who cannot meet the objectives of the firm. In this sense, the organization and the management will not spend extra cost in hiring other candidates because they need to offload the incompetent ones. However, the process of interviewing and hiring for candidates is a detailed one which requires effective processes.

Firms always experience difficulties, as well as challenges organizations, have been facing difficulties and challenges in effectively using and balancing their cost and limited resources to offer quality services as required by their consumers and stakeholders. Going by the history, most firms have operated under managers who are not very concerned about the cost management as well as the services. Addition, even up to date, measurements and controls have not been approved. Notably, most hospital firms have experienced administrative financial issues operated by physicians who are believed to be technically prepared for the complex assignments. Presently, the adopted system by paying sources has been posing pressure over the services to unsure the sustainability of the organization (Battu, Belfield, & Sloane, 1999). The market conditions call for the need for better effectiveness global Activities-based Costs is proposed as the suitable for the management of hospital since activity-based costing aims at tracking and cleaning outlines expenses within the organization. The information that is obtained from the activity-based costing will significantly help in management and planning control.

Moreover, the hospital firms over the decades have been faced with several difficulties as well as numerous challenge within the balancing the little resources available and the costs to offer their demand for the products and services. Activities based cost can help the hospitals offer costs control, enhanced quality as well as the efficiency of the care the hospital give and to manage their resources well. Just like other organizations, hospitals, experience a challenging as well as the competitive environment (Schaufeli, & VanYperen, 1992). Also, the increased competition, much focus on the quality of the care given to the patient as well as the high cost of embracing new technology comprise of the elements that compel the organization to offer better services to clients. To control costs, the administrators of firms need cost information appropriate for their needs for decision-making. Conservative hospital system cost accounting, although; frequently do not offer information concerning the cost of various activities. The application of the systems of activity-based costing may play a critical role in helping to resolve these difficulties. Overall, these systems have been effectively implemented in health care and a broad variety of supplementary health care firms. Additionally, these applications have allowed these firms to enhance their business processes, precisely identify as well as control their costs, and offer managers with various useful information, which has allowed them to enhance their operational as well as their strategic decision-making processes.

1.2 Problem statement

The rate o unemployment among graduate in Oman is worrying and has caused a lot of debates and discussions. The factors for unemployment among the graduates are believed to encompass the following: the preside and reputation of the college, the career or course pursued, the quality of education/ training, the preparedness of the graduates to join the labor market as well as the imbalance between the number of graduates and the job opportunities available for the youths. Therefore, with few job vacancies, employers look for competent and skillful gradates who can perform to the demands of the task. Aloes, the quality of education should match the demand of the labor market. Therefore, gaining entrance in the job market is key breakthrough for graduates. Transiting from education to the work of labor market is not an easy achievement. Employers always look for competent as well as employability skills in graduate before they are employed. Therefore, lack of therefore will make some graduates for long before getting any employment since most gradates would like to progress theory career development , gain social network and have their financial independence. The profile of gradates is important factor for most employees. In this sense, both extra and co curricula activities are important in determine employability of the graduate. Additionally, the training i9nstitrutions should provide the students will skill needed in the labor even as they prepare them for such demands. Overall, rate of unemployment is an issues that should be tackled by all the stakeholders including the employers the government and the graduate themselves.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The study sought to investigate factors affecting employability of graduates in Oman.

1.3.1 Objectives of the study

1.3.2 Specific objectives of the research

  1. To examine the perceptions of graduates over the quality of training offered in their training colleges in Oman.
  2. To outline the major challenges the graduates encounter when seeking employment.
  3. To offer policy recommendations to improve the labor market conditions for graduates in Oman.

1.3.3 Research Questions

  1. What is the perceptions of graduates over the quality of training offered in their training colleges in Oman?
  2. What are the major challenges the graduates encounter when seeking employment?
  3. What are the policy recommendations to improve the labor market conditions for graduates in Oman?

1.4 justification of the study

The study is relevant since it seeks to explore the reason why n many graduates are not employed in Oman. The study will offer recommendation on what should be done to fix the situation of unemployment of the graduate’s youths. The study will enable the government and stakeh9dres determine whether employment policies as well as programmers, which are currently in place are effecting in addressing the huge rate of unemployment among graduates in Oman.

1.5 Significance of the study

The study is helpful to the graduates and the government of Oman in general since they will be able to know the reason why there is high rate of unemployment among graduates in Oman. The bank graduates will know their capacities and have knowledge in effectively preparing themselves towards employment. Further, the study will important the global leaders as well as the governments since it will add to scanty scholarly world.

1.6 Organization of Research

The study is organized into introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussions, and conclusion. Introduction section covers background of the study by focusing on graduate unemployment. Other critical aspects such as objectives of the study and problem statement have been provided. Literature review focuses on understanding the research problem while the methodology section outlines the research design adopted to collect data.

1.7 Key Assumptions

The study assumes that unemployment rate in Oman among the graduates is a worrying and should be addressed by all stakeholders. Other key assumptions relate to improved governance o matters graduate employment.


2.1 Introduction

The section presents the theoretical as well as conceptual framework, and provides the basis for the entire study. Further, the section covers the definition of the main terms to be used in the study, the existing literature of the topic of the research and conclusion of the chapter.

2.2 Working concepts and definitions

2.2.1 Youth

The ideology of the young individuals or rather the youths varies from one society to another, relying on the traditions and customs, the social activities as well as the location. Gonzalez (2008) points out that the standard clarity of the young individual includes the individual who are aged between the age of 15 and 24 years. Nevertheless, in Oman, the individuals referred to as youth are the people between the age of 15 and 35 years.

2.2.2 Skills

Pauw, Oosthuizen, and Van Der Westhuizen (2008) defines the skills as the ability for the smooth progress of the coordinated performance which is usually effective moderately to its objectives, provided that the context in which it frequently happens. Considering this situation, the individuals or rather the youth can be capable of engaging themselves in diverse undertakings in which, they may be capable of discovering, consider as well as at the same time assess the possible transformations in the way they do things. The idea of skill is relevant to this study primarily because without the provision of adequate and proper skills like, business, technical and other skills to the youth, the possibilities of entering the labor market may be difficult. Moreover, this may be a hindrance to the labor supply in every labor market as well as the employment opportunities. Therefore, a number of opportunities may remain untapped and idle primarily not because of the restrictions but because of lack of required skills wanted ithin the labor market.

2.2.3 Competence

The idea of competence can be defined as the definite level of standardized obligation for the individual to virtually perform a particular occupation or the task in the world of work. Nonetheless, the competencies are frequently judged as the combination of the knowledge as well as skills needed for the people to perform the particular roles professionally and adequately. Moreover, this ideology is applicable in the study since it is the part of training output attained during the time of career training from different institutions of study. Hence, if the youths are not riven the opportunity to learn some of the wanted competence which in turn will make them ready for the employment, they will stay unemployed. In the view of Kahn (2010), competence is the capability of a person to perform errands as well as necessary roles and obligations to the required standards. It is significant to note that competence is perceived as being holistic since it comprises of the subject matter of the knowledge, qualities as well as abilities of doing activity or rather work in different manner. Nevertheless, for the purpose of the research, the ideology of the competence may be used to refer to the ability to use knowledge and skills in the practice

2.2.4 Employment

From the economic viewpoint, employment is the form of economic activity which offers the opportunity for the people to advance their quality of life or for discovering creative entrepreneurial chances. Most of the scholars argue that the employment particularly am0ng the young individuals is deemed mostly to be the economically vulnerable, and it can be the outcome of enhanced economic strategies as well as programs which facilitates and promotes the employment among the youth by the provision of access in order to credit as well as business advance services, the networking and other various forms of support. Further, this is in line with the competencies that are attained from the training that also enable them to venture in the market and employment or entrepreneurial activities (Murphy, & Topel, 1997). Moreover, there are other range of motivating factors that drives them to be employed such as independence as well as expressing oneself. The purpose of the employment as an ideology in the research is to address the entire journey as well as transitions which the youth take to begin their employment which in most cases are related to their professions, competence as well as skills they possess as spite of the fact that all the graduates are trained to have skills to be in a particular occupations, several people fail to be employed as expected.

2.2.5 Wage employment

The wage employment is described as the form of employment in which an individual is given salary as a result of selling his/her labor. Further, the wage employment occurs in both the informal as well as formal economy in Oman. As Al-Zufairy (2008) points out, several youths beings in the wage employment, and switch to self-employment at a point in their life. As a result, this is the main reason of the financial constraints, and it occurs at a point when the entrepreneurs desires to build up funds in their first employment. The main difference of the self and wage employment is that the wage employment entails less risks compared to the self-employment within the labor market.

2.3 Transition from school-to-work/ labour market

Theoretically, the transition from the school to work is deemed as the new development that is associated with the transformation of life in the development. Additionally, this period is viewed as the time when the individual leaves the formal education and is expected to join the labour market or rather employment. Moreover, it is important to note that the transition take place at any level of an individual education. Further, the school to work program provides the opportunity to many standing problems concerning employment creation, schooling as well as training schedules. These issues are enhanced and perceived as to be part of a distinct process as well as practice. As Kahn (2010) points out, the change from school to work can be described as the period between the end of the obligatory education and the achievement of steady opportunity for employment.

The success of the change from school to work for the youth is highly reliant on the way such young individuals are capable to secure economic activities, and all the other kind of employment occupation in the line of work that is considered to be gainful, that is the main principal objectives for youth at the time they are through with their education. For the developing countries like the Oman Sultanate, the likelihoods of employment opportunities are mainly entrenched within the informal department that is primed in the labour market of Oman, since there are considered to be few opportunities in the formal department of the country’s economy. Moreover, the youth frequently desire to be assisted in the process of taking the actions which are helpful if they at all need to discover the way to make the satisfying lives on their own without the help of their parents. On the other hand, the school to work change for the young individuals need steady kinds of mentoring as well as apprenticeship strategies in order to become the core practices in the entire process that pertains school to work changes in the labour market.

On the other hand, the active labour market strategies may also play a vital function in facilitating the transition from school to work. These strategies comprises of the formal employment as well as the self-employment policies. Moreover, the relevance of such strategies is these polices play an vital role through incorporating the deprived youth who fails in the market labour absorbent with the required skills that enable the young individuals to remain active. According to (Fogg, Harrington, and McMahon (2010), these policies comprises of the individual capabilities in a particular area of work. In addition, these policies may facilitate the process of the economic journey of the graduates through leading to the programs which enables the economic journey of the graduates to be productive as well as successful. According to Try (2005), the index of the school quality has a higher influence compared to the academic performance on the change from the school to labour in Oman. Moreover, he estimates the gross return in the individuals who attends the elite institutions is considered to be as high as 10.7%. Further, Pauw, Oosthuizen, and Van Der Westhuizen (2008) asserts that the college reputation, different from the years of schooling, is directly correlated with the earnings the graduates growth since, the reputation of a college can signify the higher capabilities of the student body as well as the value added.

Also, Kahn (2010) demonstrates that it is quite difficult for the young graduates to with degrees in computer science, law as well as English education to be employed in Oman. Consequently, the choices of institution major is receptive to transformations within the knowledge composition of employment. Moreover a different research conducted showed that the economics majors earned a very high wages, hence, the mismatch had a very smaller salaries for economics majors compared to business major. Li, Whalley and Xing (2014) states that the higher unemployment rate for the graduates in Oman is due to the inadequate attainment in education in the country. The research also revealed that the higher reservation of jobs in Oman can result to a longer time of job search for the graduates. This therefore means that the graduates may have a longer time searching for the jobs when they are from the better reputation institutions, or rather they possess a higher education level since they have a greater expectations for salaries.

2.5 Social Networks

Randeree (2012) points out that social network includes the individual’s closest friends and families. On the other hand, Paul and Moser (2009) demonstrates that the family may include the persons who are considered to be fictive family. Also, it can happen to the individuals who are deemed to have the relations founded on their nature of family connections as well as association with the elders and other class classifications. However, it is important to note that network can either be helpful or unhelpful in that the social networks differs from the intentions the person has for being involved in it. The skills as well as experiences of the youth, in perspective of the employment particularly in the developing nations like Oman is majorly based on the system of the family which is embedded in various communities, and these signifies a social network. Also, Kapiszewski (2000) recognized the prosperous basis of value which the networks offer by the various level of informal as well as formal relations. They argue that having the necessary connections with the individuals who are competent as well as skilled of offering the desired assistance in either private or public life, is considered to be an important feature of the customs among the youth who are inquisitive in deciding about their career into the employment.

2.6 Importance of employment to young people

Currently, there are a number of young individuals who are out of work, others have ventured in the opportunities that comes with the self-employment. Moreover, the unemployment rate in Oman for the graduates seems to be increasing in relation to the population who are deemed to be working either self-employed or just employed in other companies and industries. Additionally, Williams, Bhanugopan, and Fish (2011) believes that over half of the youths in Oman, approximately 62%, are categorised as economically inactive. Approximately one third of the unemployed young people, from the research conducted showed the interest of working and would wish to be employed. Moreover, the young people faces increasing level of discrimination in the sector of gaining and to retain jobs, can make the youths to venture in other forms of employment like the self-employment which seems to be the best option for the graduates in Oman who are prepared for the self-employment. Therefore, enhancing the employment opportunities for the youth may promote the increasing level of unemployment among the youth, it can also assist in the prevention of social exclusion between the defenceless youth as well as narrow the increasing gap of the rates of employment for the young individuals in Oman. Overall, the employment strategies for the youths in Oman should mainly focus on liaising with the employers as well as placing the people in works.

2.7 Employment search theory

In line with the ideologies of the neo-classical economics, the human investment oriented job search theory, the employed youths in Oman searches for the employment to take the full benefit of their utility. Further, in the searching exercise the youth selects job search passion as well as the reservation for the remuneration advantages. The concept of job search utilizes the techniques of sequential statistical choice, for example, the theory of difficulty of workers of meeting the required opportunities for jobs in the decentralised market of labour. Provided that the employment search data is deemed to be expensive as well as difficult, frequently the young individuals without the employment have to search from the out the most favourable policies that may take a full benefit of the current value to the future returns. Additionally, because the market is considered as imperfect, job opportunities are not frequently existing in the market of labour.

According to Al-Harthi (2011), the youths do not seek for jobs for simply in the areas of their residence, but they may also seek for employment opportunities in the regions that are distant from where they stay. Relying on this model, the idea of distant is also a vital element influencing the job search labours as well as pains specifically among the youths that are considered to be helpless, who in the real sense don not possess the required resources to necessitate their movement in seeking for employment across the country. On the other hand, Girgis (2002) asserts that the model he developed can help the youths of Oman in seeking for employment in that the model relays on the preferences about the employment search technique as well as intensity to normal rate and therefore it is useful in the process of employment seeking. Moreover, he argues that all the people who are not employed frequently take the full benefit of their utility through selecting the set wage in the market of labour. Thus, they will assess the acceptable amount of wage that they can do the job.

2.8 Analytical framework

The analytical framework, the structured figure below, was formed to guide in the interpretation and analysis of the information presented in the fourth chapter of the study as well as elucidate the outcome in line with the research questions that was presented in the first chapter.

Economic Journeys to forms of employments


  • Age
  • Skills
  • Competencies
  • Access to credit

Transition from school-to-work

– Family support

– Support networks

– Personal initiatives

-Other initiatives



Figure 1: The design of the analytical framework factors

As demonstrated in the diagram, the youths in Oman may rely on the personal factors like institutional as well as social networks factors and other factors like skills, competence and wages in their process of employment search. Moreover, the opportunities for the youths to seek employment is frequently affected by the access to the capital as well as desired competence, and skills that a person have before joining the market of labour. Therefore, the analytical framework provides a vital picture on the way the information interpretation and analysis should be discussed depending on the mentioned factors in the diagram.


3.1.   Introduction

This section consist of data collection, method, research design, participants a, sampling methods, data analysis technique, data collections instruments and ethical concerns. This section will provide the research methodology that will be adopted for the study. The chapter will begin with an introduction, nature of the survey, justification for taking systematic review approach, collection of data.

3.2.   Research design

The study mainly employed questionnaire approach and partly relied on quantitative approach.  Research design defines how the data will be collected and analyzed.  The study employs descriptive survey.  The descriptive survey described using variables and their relationship.

3.3.   Data collection

The data collected will be subjected to critical analysis. Different theories will be adopted in analyzing quantitative data. The selected literature will be compared information contained will keenly read to check for their relevancy. The study partly employed literature search. This was chosen because the research is readily available in libraries as well as in online databases. The literature review will cover behavioral factors that are directly attributed to information security breaches in various organizations with particular interest in academic works done by previous researchers in modeling such behaviors to aid the process of a comprehending impact of these factors on information security.

3.4.   Sampling Method

The research will employ purposive sampling, where the researcher will look for literature that is relevant to the study.

3.4.1.      Participants

The participants would, include 30 graduates employability in Oman. They would be given questionnaire to fill on their views concerning the graduate employability in Oman.

3.5.   Data collection

The study mainly employed quantitative research design where both primary and secondary sources was sued.  The primary data w gathered through the questionnaires which were distributed to 30 graduate’s employability in Oman. The questionnaire was divided in four parts to obtain information from the respondent.  The first part contained the general information about the respondent, the second part gathered information about the employability of the graduates in Oman as well as the participants. The data was analyzed using frequency distributed tables. The sound part consisted of the competence and degree of education of the graduates.   The secondary sources which include books and journals would be obtained from online and public libraries. The research was done on electronic databases online libraries, peered reviewed journals and other materials that relate to the topic. The selection process will begin choosing articles distinguished scholars to ensure that the research findings are accurate. To avoid choosing irrelevant literature, formulation of main words that are essential to research.

3.6.   Data analysis

The gathered data was evaluated and analysed by the use descriptive statistics.  Dabalen Oni and Adekola (2001) denote that descriptive statistics permits for the meaningful description of the scores distribution. Further, the descriptive statistics provides a fast image on the values of the variables. Thus, bearing in mind the quantitative nature of the information collected, the descriptive statistics that describes the major features of the gathered information.  The data was presented by the application of tables. Further, the information attained was then compared to the existing literature to determine the areas of agreement as well as areas of disagreement to ascertain the facts of the study.

3.7.   Ethical consideration

Ethical concerns are essential in doing research since it guides and give the rules that the researcher needs to follow. Also, the responses found should be confidential, and should only be for the purpose of academics. Finally, the study will use literature that was published not later than five years ago. The respondent were not allowed to reveal their names. Pseudonyms were used.

3.8.   Scope and Delimitations

This study sought to explore the factors influencing the employability of the graduates in Oman. It further explores various employability styles, the comparison between the age, competence and degree of education of the graduates in Oman.


4.1 Introduction

This section presents findings and discussion of the research. Thirty questionnaires were duly filled and were used in the analysis of the finding of the research as well as discussion.

4.2 Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Gender Frequency Percent (%)
Male 5 17
Female 25 83
Total 30 100

Table 1: Respondents Gender

The research conducted was on the number of third respondents. From the table one, 25 of the respondents were female making a total of 83% of the total percentage of the respondent in the study. The male in the research was 5 in total which translate to 13% of the total respondents. Therefore from the research it was obtained that the female covered the largest part of the Oman total population.

Age Frequency Percent (%)
19-24 years 10 33
25-30 years 14 47
31-36 years 5 17
37-42 years 1 3
43-58 years 0 0
Over 58 years 0 0
Total 30 100

Table 2: Age of the Respondents

From the study conducted, the table presents the ages of the respondents in the research. The most of the respondents were of between the ages of 25 to 30 years which was represented by a percentage of 47% of the total population. This age is followed with the ages between 19 and 24 years which is represented with the percentage of 33%. The least age in the research was represented by 3% of the population with the age difference of 37 and 42 years.

Time Employed Frequency Percent (%)
1-4 years 27 90
5-8 years 2 7
9-12 years 1 3
13-16 year 0 0
17-20 years 0 0
total 30 100

Table 3: Time Period employed

The table shows the period the graduates involved in the research have been employed. Form the table, 90% of the respondents have been employed for one to four years since they graduated from the colleges and institutions. The least percentage from the research is represented by 3% of the total population and have worked for between 9 and 12 years since they graduated. This shows that most of the graduates are not employed in Oman. Most of the graduates are on and off of employment and there is no stability in the employment they get.

4.3 Factors Affecting Fresh Graduates Employ-ability

Item Weighted mean Verbal interpretation
Age as a factor of freshly graduates employability 1.18 Strongly disagree
Gender as a factor of employability. 1.09 Strongly disagree
Religion influences fresh graduates’ employability. 1.03 Strongly disagree
Composite mean 1.1 Strongly disagree

Table 4: Graduates’ Employability

Legend: 3.50 – 4.00= Strongly Agree; 2.50 – 3.49 = Agree;

1.50 – 2.49 = Disagree; 1.00 – 1.49 = Strongly Disagree

As per from the information gathered from the research, all were evaluated as strongly disagree in relation to the profile of the graduates in in Oman with the summation value being at 1.1. Further, the religious influence on the fresh graduate’s employability was ranked the least, with the mean of 1.03. In regards to the age factor, as a vital measure in the hiring of the graduates, it ranked on top with the mean of 1.18.

Items Weighted mean Verbal interpretation
Proper grooming and employment. 4.00 Strongly agree
Proper hygiene and employment. 3.91 Strongly agree
The graduates with a good set of teeth. 3.12 Agree
Height of fresh graduates. 2.06 Disagree
Good complexion and employability. 1.97 Strongly disagree
Weight and employability 1.27 Disagree
Composite mean 2.72 Agree

Table 5: Physical Appearance and graduates employability

Legend: 3.50 – 4.00= Strongly Agree; 2.50 – 3.49 = Agree;

1.50 – 2.49 = Disagree; 1.00 – 1.49 = Strongly Disagree

The table shows the elements that affects the fresh graduate’s employability in relation to the physical appearance of the graduates. From the research conducted and the information gathered, it was obtained that an overall evaluation was 2.72, which was rated as agree. Therefore, from the study and information, proper grooming has a significant function in the employment of the graduates which was ranked at 4.00 and the respondents strongly agreed with this element. In Oman, there is an uptrend of the graduates enrolling in the personality enhancement schools over the time, this is a majorly signify the increase in the graduates awareness of the benefits possessing the proper grooming as well as pleasant behaviour. The Oman graduates are beginning to build up on their looks by ensuring that they take proper care of themselves and maintain proper hygiene, and to make sure they build and enhance their personality in the effort that they are noticed by the employers in the labour market.

Items Weighted Mean Verbal interpretation
Creativity to do the work 4.00 Strongly Agree
Efficient communication skills 4.00 Strongly Agree
Right attitude for the job 3.97 Strongly Agree
Effective listening skills 3.94 Strongly Agree
Skills of leadership 3.91 Strongly Agree
Responsiveness to details 3.82 Strongly Agree
Critical thinking, planning and organizing 3.82 Strongly Agree
Capabilities in conflicts resolution 3.79 Strongly Agree
Composite mean 3.91 Strongly Agree

Table 6: Employability and Soft Competencies

Legend: 3.50 – 4.00= Strongly Agree; 2.50 – 3.49 = Agree;

1.50 – 2.49 = Disagree; 1.00 – 1.49 = Strongly Disagree

The represents the elements of the fresh graduate’s employability in relation to the soft competence of the individual. From the data gathered, the overall evaluation was at 3.91 which was ranked as strongly agree to the fact that the competence of an individual is directly connected to the employability of the person. It is therefore clear that the employers expect the graduates to maintain some element of discipline as well as possess the technical competence from training in the colleges and institutions. Thus, there are a number of attributes, knowledge and skills that are essential to the employers and the graduates should have before they are employed.

The creativity to do the job given as well as efficient communication skills of the person ranked the highest with the mean of 4.00 in the data collected which was ranked as strongly agree. To show that above all the qualifications, the graduates must possess the will to do the work as well as have the effective communication skills which are considered to be very vital to the market labour. Moreover, the companies requires the workers who are capable of thinking on their feet, and take the necessary action without waiting for other people to inform them on what to do. Overall, this kind of flexibility as well as courage is what thrusts the organizations and teams to revolutionize and overcome the high competition in the market. Moreover, from the table, the graduates with the capabilities to resolve conflicts appropriately ranked the least, and rated as strongly agree. In other terms, the market does not require the graduates who can only resolve conflicts since there are no conflicts to me resolved in the market but to fairly compete with other organizations.

Items Weighted mean Verbal interpretation
Training in a related field 3.91 Strongly agree
Job and workshop 3.88 Strongly agree
Social awareness 3.88 Strongly agree
seminar 3.27 agree
Composite mean 3.72 Strongly agree

Table 7: Employability and Work Experience

Legend: 3.50 – 4.00= Strongly Agree; 2.50 – 3.49 = Agree;

1.50 – 2.49 = Disagree; 1.00 – 1.49 = Strongly Disagree

As obtained from the information gathered, graduates with the work related experience in the labour market is an added benefit to the employability of the graduates as it provides them a leap to the job well done, and should easily react to working environment as well as transforms as strongly agreed by the research participants and possessing a composite mean of 3.72 from the table. For the graduates entering the labour market, internship is vital in the opening of the employment opportunities. Further, the current employers frequently demonstrate a preference to the individuals who have the actual life experiences compared to the ones who do not have. Moreover, the employers are always keen on the recruiting the individuals who already are operational, as it is able to fast track the training procedure.

Items Weighted mean Verbal interpretation
Awards and recognition 3.94 Strongly agree
Degree of education 3.82 Strongly agree
Proper grades 2.85 agree
Institution graduated from 1.36 Strongly disagree
Composite mean 2.99 Agree

Table 8: Employability and Education

Legend: 3.50 – 4.00= Strongly Agree; 2.50 – 3.49 = Agree;

1.50 – 2.49 = Disagree; 1.00 – 1.49 = Strongly Disagree

From the information gathered, the factors affecting the employability in relation to the education was ranked as agree with the summation mean of 2.99. Moreover, the industry related recognitions as well as awards are significant and the most visible as revealed with a mean of 3.94 which was ranked as strongly agreed. Therefore, with the recognition and awards, the graduates is then sure with the employment and can affirm that he/she is sure of being employed within a short while.

4.3 Summary

Therefore, sweeping the demographic transformation across Oman as a country will place a higher pressure on the private as well as government department in order to initiate and enhance creative resolutions to the integrate, educate as well as retain the rapidly transforming and different working population in the country.


5.1 Conclusion

Most of the employers in the labour market do not provide an intensive eyeing to the graduates demographic profile of the individuals applying to be employed. The profile such as gender, age as well as religion does not influence the abilities of the graduate applying for a position in the company and does to affect the workability of the graduate. In regards to the physical appearance of the graduate, the study conducted showed that proper hygiene and grooming plays an essential role as they are integral segment of the graduate’s property. Moreover, from the research done, other significant elements attained and that affects the employability is the soft competence of the graduate since they provides the positive influence to the graduate applicants. On the other hand, the work experience of the graduate is very vital in the hiring of the graduates as it gives the necessary information on the way the applicant does his/her work.

5.2 Recommendation

Dependent on the findings as well as conclusion of the research on the factors affecting the graduate’s employability in the labor market in Oman, the research of therefore recommends that;

  1. The graduates from Oman should focus on the development as well as enhancement of the curriculum to ensure that the students improve on their professional appearance particularly in relation to proper grooming and hygiene.
  2. Moreover, the institutions must create communicating seminars which would enhance the soft competence that are required by the employers in Oman. This should be done through the colleges involving the learners to the industry related organizations as well as leadership training in order to advance and raise the self-confidence of the students.
  3. Finally, the students should involve in the corporate social activities which better their chances in the employability in the labour market.


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Thank you for participating in this research. Your response will help us understand graduates employability in Oman. Please tick the answer that best describes you or your view. Your answers will be kept confidential.

Section A. Background

1. What is your gender?



2. How old are you?


31- 36



Over 58

3. What duration have you worked after graduation?





Section B.


25- 30

37 – 46



4. Does age factor affect the employability of graduates to the labour market in Oman?

strongly agree agree



Strongly disagree


5. Does gender as an aspect impacts the graduate’s employability?

strongly agree agree


strongly disagree

6. Does religion of a graduate influence the employability in Oman?

strongly agree agree


strongly disagree

7. Does proper grooming impacts the employability of graduates?

strongly agree agree


strongly disagree

8. Does proper hygiene effects the employability of graduates?

strongly agree agree


strongly disagree

9. Does the graduates with the set of teeth and a good height impacts the employability in Oman?

strongly agree agree


strongly disagree


10. Does good complexion impacts the employability of graduates?

strongly agee agree


strongly disagree

Section C

11. Why does the graduates take long period before being employed?


12. Mention some of the strategy programmes that facilitates the graduates into employment?


13. State some of the issues graduates encounter in their journey of employment?





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