In our contemporary society, system of criminal justice is an outcome of the various evolutionary transformations that the society has experienced since the beginning of the United States of America(Martinez, 2017). In the past years, United States of America has established a mechanisms that institute and enforce the laws of the society at the same time giving out responsibilities and prosecute the law breakers. In our societies today, the functions are carried out by the corrections, police and courts. This method of criminal justice system, was not there in the early beginning of the United States of America. Before the establishment of the formal laws, rules and institutions were developed, in America. It relied on the religion as a means of the eradicating bad behaviours in the society. Most of the crimes codes were well identified in the bible, breaking of various offences were for instance, blasphemy, profanity as well as the breaking of the Sabbath rules were not tolerated in the society (Kampmark, 2017). There were various ways on how people were punished like stoning, dunking, humiliation of the law breakers as well as whipping and finally they were ultimately lead towards asking for the repentance of their offences. It was through these methods that were used to make the offenders apologetic for their criminal actions.
In the United States of America, the use of the religion as way of dealing with criminal justice became less used. The law was formed to sustain values of the morality, which were more common concern for the greater number of the people in the United States of America in this time than religion. The transformation resulted to more laws hence, led to more violations(Davies & Matteoni, 2017). Majority of the people believe that laws of morality are less adopted than the laws of religion thus making them to become less operative in eradicating the required behaviour than using the new structure like corrections, courts and even police. It does not matter, whether is effective or ineffective, right or wrong the events are the major determinant for the contemporary criminal justice in America. They range from small, religion like small towns to bigger cities where the religion and customs were practised, they will never transform the background of the criminal justice system, generating a need for dignified corrections, courts and police.
Justification of the topic
Like any topic, reasons why people commit crimes has become an essential topic because it explains various phenomenon on why people commit crimes. Laws create a safe atmosphere foe everyone and make an individual to feel secure at all times. It also contributes to the fairness in the society by safeguarding the rights and responsivities of an individual to belong to a given country. Transgression of laws has brought a great concern in the society raising questions on reasons of people committing the crimes.
The criminal justice literature has been productively probing the causes of why people engage in crimes. According to the contribution of Richard J. Herrnstein and James Q. Wilson, they claimed that crimes occurs as a result of external conditions to the law breakers or is an act of psychological abnormality(Martinez, 2017). According to them they argue that the offenders should either be responsible or get punishment for their criminal engagement. James and Wilson demonstrates that punishment is there to justify crime committed despite the attack made by the social sciences on the concept of free action and personal accountability.
They further claim that the main reasons of the crime are not lawbreaker’s abnormal psychology or the surrounding. Rather, they assert crime as a result of those aspects that does not change the human nature that makes people to be accountable of their crimes. In other words, law breaking is a manifestation of the same human nature that leads to actions of greatness(Kampmark, 2017). Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham are great philosophers who contributed towards the criminal justice they argued that people have a free will in making decisions. According to Jeremy and Cesare understands argue that, punishment can be a deterrent for crime so long as the kid of punishment and individual goes through id directly proportional to the crime that an individual committed.
According to the thinkers like Hobbes and Locke understands that the concept of crime was vague and obscure, because they believed that human being is known to be simple by nature and its(Martinez, 2017) deeds are managed by some super power. According to their argument they claim that man commits crime due to the external influence of spirits called demos or evils. Thus a law breaker commits a wrongful deeds not because of his own free will but due to external influence of some super power. This contribution goes hand in handwith the theory of the demonological theory of criminality which acknowledges the omnipotence of the spirit which they regarded as a great power. In this theory criminal is considered as the evidence of the fact that a person possess demons is considered as the only cure for which testimony of the effectiveness of the spirit(Kampmark, 2017).
The lesson derived from this section is that criminal justice lies in the fact that it clearly contain concessions of the free will. This implies that a person can break the law due to a certain extenuating circumstances which should be taken into consideration the time when getting a punishment, therefore, the criminal actions like the personality of the offences as a whole for instance motives, general character ad antecedents should not be overlooked. It should note that the basis of judging system on offences jurisprudence is essentially an outcome of the reaction towards the handling the lawbreakers in the society(Davies & Matteoni, 2017). Both articles and theories clearly come into agreement that criminality whether irresponsible or responsible is a threat to the society and hence, need to be eliminated.
The proposed research project will be grounded the demonological theory of criminality. The demonological theory of criminality focuses on demonology which states that crime does not come from one major source(Kampmark, 2017). There are many different ways behind the person’s criminal behaviour. In the theory of demonology people believed the existence of the evil spirits that penetrated in the through the human body hence he became vulnerable to commit offences. By the used to use different terms like witches, wendigo and demons that were being used to refer to people who had turned criminal the society(Martinez, 2017). According to various societies thought that criminal existed due to influence of the evil spirit. Society believed that the supernatural powers were considered as the best explanation behind breaking of the laws and committing sin at the same time. Hence there was a believe that a person never committed sin voluntarily of his own free will but due to external influence that is influence of the evil spirit.
External influence such as demons and evil spirits are the major reasons why people commit crimes in the society
Independent variable is demons and evil spirits while crimes is a dependent variable.
This study is aiming at people of age15-35 years in the United States of America who have committed various crimes and those who have not committed crimes. In conducting research a sample should be taken to stand for the large population to be studied. The best sampling criteria has to be sought relying on its reliability ad suitability of the study. The simple random sampling method to be used should be suitable enough in order to reduce the chances inconveniences ad error to occur.
In order to obtain the research on the reason why people commit crimes in United States of America the quantitative research design should be used. This means that the empirical investigation of both physical and tangible phenomena by the use of statistical, computation and mathematical means to obtain the results. Quantitative research aims at using calculations models hypotheses and theories which are related to the topic under study. On the other hand, qualitative research that investigates much more specific circumstances and skills with an objective of explaining the meaning of things.
There exist a number of means by which data should be obtained for whatever the question of the research. Among data sources are as follows interviews, observations, focus groups, questionnaires and secondary means such as ethnographies documents and records, and all these are to be utilized for our study depending on their advantages and disadvantages, which in turn depends the suitability ad the reliability of the method to be used.
Interviews is a method of gathering information by use of oral means which involve researcher interrogating the respondent’s questions while recording the answers right there and then. It has a number of advantages and disadvantages
In interview there is speech modification. It gets easy to simplify an individual because both the interviewer and interviewee come together and therefore easily move step after step with maximum simplicity.
During the process of the interview, there is an interaction between the interviewer and the respondent, which may upsurge collaboration and common acceptance between those who involved hence, easy to obtain accurate answers full of the honesty of those who involved.
Information gathered may not be correctly collected, because the examiner may get the examinee out of context.
Inadequate attentiveness by parties may lead to the proposed data receiving inaccurate.
It is extremely expensive and time consuming when involving a large population.
A questionnaire simply prepared questions by a researcher and accessible to a respondent in the aim of gathering some information on a given topic of study.
Advantages of a questionnaire:
A lot of the information can be collected from many people within a very short period, unlike to other means of data collection.
It is easy to analyze information acquired by a questionnaire more logically than other methods of data collection.
Questionnaire contrasting to interviews in inadequate in thoughtful of some other factors such as in emotions changes, performances among other things that may easily alter the respondents’ responses.
It is very difficult to verify whether or not the respondent was honest o the process of filling the questionnaire.
Davies, O., & Matteoni, F. (2017). Executing Magic in the Modern Era: Criminal Bodies and the Gallows in Popular Medicine. Springer.
Kampmark, B. (2017). Releasing the “Terror Genie”: Man Haron Monis and the “Sydney Siege.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 37(4), 496–510.
Martinez, K. (2017). The Devil in the Details: Popular Demonology, Addiction and Criminology (PhD Thesis). Eastern Kentucky University.