Academic Master


Critical Thinking Question Answers

1. It may feel as if the computer is smarter than me for beating me in computer games consistently. However, I don’t think the computer is not smarter than me. This is because the computer has been programmed to be quite efficient in playing the game. Therefore, the computer does all that the program requires it to do. It cannot work on its own. Also, the computer does not think on its own. It has been programmed via the apps to do as the designer expected. Therefore, all that the computer does has been predetermined by the maker. The computer does not have original powers to do anything on its own.

2. There is the possibility of free will even with the existence of God’s plan. Though God has a purpose for every person and understands our next move, he has given people the freedom to do as they wish. For this reason, Gods guides via rules but the people decide what to take from the rules. It is because there is the possibility of free will that sins are accounted for. People are free to do as they wish, whether right or wrong. Depending on the attitude of the acct that one decides to do, the existence of sin is determined.

3. In Buridan’s donkey paradox, Buridan claims that a donkey that is placed in between two piles of hays would starve after not being able to decide which to eat. He, therefore, claims that people placed in between two decisions ought to postpone their action if they are not sure of the best alternative. However, Spinoza criticizes the donkey paradox claiming that it doesn’t apply to a man. Instead, he feels that using the donkey in place of the man is not relational. A man is unlikely to starve for hunger having been placed in between some food. The man would make an instant decision as opposed to a donkey that would starve to hunger for not being able to make a decision.

4. Alyosha Karamazov finds realizes that he is free from the explanation given by the Karamazov brothers. The brother state that many of the people follow Christ because it is easier to do so. Therefore, he realizes that there is an alternative of not following the rules. Upon analyzing the struggles and challenges that he had gone through, he decides to believe. He also feels that following the rules and believing in God’s plan is better rather than trying to make new decisions and waiting for an unknown outcome in future. He realizes that he is free to make decisions that would influence the future.

5. Many of the externalists believed that human beings were beyond what can be seen. They felt that people are not the physical component that is visible to the naked eyes. However, they are made of more, including the spirit that guides that reasoning and actions. Therefore, people are free and also represent freedom. In fact, Sartre believed that people are the freedom. Therefore, they are away from determinism and make their own decisions on what to do. Anybody cannot predict the actions taken by the human beings. The aspect of freedom comes in and enhances the route taken in the lives of the human beings.

6. Various areas portray a difference between the analytical philosophy and the rest of philosophy schools. First, the analytical philosophy takes into account many foundational doctrines as compared to the rest of the doctrines. The rest have limited schools, making them quite shallow. Another difference depicts from the fact that analytical philosophy considers only the statements that seem to provide logical arguments while the rest of the schools consider all statements irrespective of their logic flow. The analytical philosophy also differs from the rest in that it considers more problems than the rest, that is, both the normative and non-normative problems.

7. The logical positivist and natural language theorist differ in their argument concerning the proposition. In this case, the logical propositions argue that all prepositions taken to be meaningful have to be confirmable, verifiable or even analytical. The metaphysical theories are therefore held to be meaningless for failing to meet the set criteria. O the other hand, the natural language theorist argues that all the possible misunderstanding comes from poor or lack of understanding of the language applied. It is, therefore, argued that many of the philosophical problems identified come from the misuse of the language and therefore the loss of the meaning.

8. The Vienna circle is quite relevant in the history of the analytic. Vienna circle composed of a group of philosophers. The philosophers were famously referred to as the thugs or the patron saints. They came from Vienna and worked on various philosophies. The work that they carried out during their time gave them their significance to history. They were dedicated to ensuring that all the philosophies coming up were harmonized and reconciled to find out the truth. They worked towards determining the truth regarding the language logic, terming it as either empirical or logical positivism.

9. Existentialism depicts various main themes. The first theme is that of hopelessness. People feel hopeless after finding out that no one of their calibers could assist them in determining what purpose their lives depicted. They, therefore, feel all is lost if no one could offer a good explanation of the real meaning of life. Another theme is that of anxiety. People feel the anxiety that comes from learning how senseless life could be. This is after analyzing various aspect of life and determining how difficult it is to understand. The refusal of meaning forms the other theme, depicting the inability to get an answer to ones questions, even after trying to follow up life concepts in the religion.

10. Kierkegaard and Dostoyevsky are the predecessors of existentialism due to their contribution to the claims made around it. Kierkegaard provides that the choice that one has over something surpasses the reason surrounding any decision regarding his choice. Therefore, Kierkegaard believes that one considers the choice a priority rather than the reasoning that comes with the decision. In support of the same, Dostoyevsky took a step to believe in God since he had the intention of changing the problems life that he faced on earth. Therefore, Dostoyevsky ignored the reality tales and chose to believe in God, since his intentions were to do away with the problem face on earth.

11. Hurssel provides that life ought to be taken day by day, depicting the need for a new decision depending on the prevailing conditions. Hurssel provided that people are conscious of the decisions they make and the consequences they expect from their actions. Therefore, the decisions they make are determined motivated by their freedom which is existential at all times. This informed existentialists due to the inclusion of the freedom factor. He elaborated that having the freedom to make decisions; people’s conscience is always involved in the selection of the most effective decision. Consciousness illustrates the existence of freedom in determining what is best to do.

12. Sartre gave meaning to nothingness and being by offering some distinction between the two. In this case, he stated that being is the aspect of remaining conscious. On the other hand, nothingness is the aspect of not being knowledgeable. Therefore, human beings are not things but the world is a thing. This is because the world is solid and therefore tangible and visible. People fail to qualify as things as they cannot be analyzed fully physically, but the world can. Freedom creates the aspect of being free for the people. Therefore, consciousness represents the state of “being”, while unconsciousness represents the state of “not being”.



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