Introduction to Music
The music piece observed for the assignment is composed by David Castello, who is a Russian composer and was born in 1881. The music piece which is listened, is a form of classical music and displays a moment of joy in it. The mood and context of the music form is entertaining and depicts a version of comedy in it. This music piece can be used as a background for comedy texture.
- Define “classical music”?
Classical music is art music rooted or produced in the indigenous western culture consisting both religious and secular music.
- What prompted the composers of the Classical era to compose as they did?
Composers of the classical music composed this type of music because they were motivated by the need to pass the traditional values of the early society to the current society (Hoffer, 2017). Most of the composers were effected by the early soviet army and nazi German, and this gave rise to the tradition of music which illustrated the feelings of people due to the incident.
- Briefly explain the Sonata Form?
Sonata form can be described as an organizational structure flamed on contrasting musical ideas. It entails three basic sections which are exposition, development and recapitulation. Note that, sometimes Sonata form may entail an optional coda at the end (Hoffer, 2017). Dario Castello (1590-1658) published his sonatas under the title of “in stil moderno” which referred the stylistic research of musicians in the 17th century. Musical formats as well as emotional impacts were free to diverse rapidly within a single work and the promoters of the sonatas might write the parts from their abilities. Castello’s Sonata no. 4 displays the freedom form of music and its virtual meaning, which contrasts the flow of the music, urging the listener to change from an emotional context to another within a short period of time.
- For what styles are the following classical composers most noted: Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Joseph-Boulogne Chevalier de Saint-Georges, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart? Listen to their music and give a critique for each composer.
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger: used a classical style where his string players would tune their strings in distinct ways known as scordatura, and he used muted strings to slow the movement while performing. Joseph-Boulogne Chevalier de Saint-Georges: used baroque while Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart used Mozart style to compose his music.
- Not much has been discussed in the world of music about Joseph Saint-Georges. Conduct independent research and share your findings in a one-page paper. Listen to his music and give a critique.
Joseph Saint-Georges was commonly known as the most accomplished person of his era. He was among the best musicians of Paris during the pre-Revolutionary period. Moreover, he was a superb all-around athlete and person of arms. This man spent much of his time in exile, Haiti. Regarding his musical career, he was a director of a musical organization called Cercle de I’ Harmonie. He suffered from bladder disease that caused his death on June 12, 1799. At his demise, there is no information about his family. However, he was a successful composer during his time, and during the eighteenth century, nobody had possessed anywhere near his range of exotic persona and remarkable personality. His music is very encouraging and satisfying.
- What do you suppose the writer means by, “Music is organically tied to theatre, film, radio, television, dance, cabaret, and variety”? Do you agree? Explain.
The writer meant that music solely depended on theatre, radio, television, film among other aspects for it to attain success. I agree with his claim because I also believe that to produce music one needs some equipment and resources such as theatre, dance and cabaret while they needed television and radio to air the music. The statement however differs in some situation, where a musician needs just a good voice and a platform to display the music and the talent. The detail in this situation lies that, if platforms like film, theatre, TV, and other varities are linked with introducing music, it is more influential to support the type of music displayed on a certain stage.
- Africa: Discuss the main difference between the musical styles amongst the five regions of Africa.
The main differences are the melodic modes being applied, for instance, the musical styles of North Africa have melodic modes known as maqamat. Another main difference is the instruments and rhythms being used. Moreover, another differing aspect is that various parts of the lyrics do not necessarily combine harmoniously. Tony Allen, who is considered the godfather of afrobeat drumming, changed the African music into a new style, where he introduced afrobeat music using drums. It is different from the overall African music, where most of the music consists of Djombie and life hack music renditions.
- Arab Classical Music: How is American spoken word similar to the origins of Arab classical music?
The most common similarity is that they all occupy an indispensable and central position in Arabs and American culture and history as a conveyer of remembrance. They both carried oral traditions to the present continent and maintained them as an extraordinary act of courage.
- Arab Classical Music: In what way has Western music influenced Arab classical music?
Arab classical music adopted some western music instruments to fit their Arabic ears and took on the form of popular musical instruments we know today. Again, Arabs classical music borrowed some western musical words such as do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti. Basically, classical Arabic music was handed down and nurtured for decades in Western culture which made it absorb some western elements. If we take a look in the past Arab music, it consisted of one or two instruments with oftenly slow tradition of the music. Arab music was mostly diverse but in one way only. Western music where more of them are hip hop nowadays and fast tracks, has also urged the Arab music community to change it self and follow the same trend.
- Aboriginal Traditional: What effect has myth and religion had on Aboriginal music?
Myth and religion help the aboriginal musician to have a feeling of belonging, oneness and feeling of connectedness with deep innermost feelings. Myth and religion also shape the aboriginal musician where they learn good and bad. They also pass important information regarding the early life of the society. Didgeridoo is considered the traditional instrument of the aboriginal music, which defines the music culture as well. However, religion and myths of the culture have changed the music where the teachings of aboriginal culture have made diverse impacts of defining good and bad to the music.
- Afro Beat: What has been a major contributor to the success and longevity of Afro Beat music?
This music genre developed in the 1970s when African artists started to combine elements of western African musical styles like jazz, juju music and American Funk. The main thing that contributed to the longevity and success of Afro Beat music is that a significant number of musicians including jazz artists got attracted to Afrobeat. Moreover, the Afrobeat gained a lot of support from famous individuals such as David Byrne and Brian Eno, who were dedicated to seeing Afrobeat a success.
- Balkan Brass Bands: What type of human response does Balkan Brass Band music often evoke?
The distinctive style of music originated from Serbia in the 19th century, and it was mostly improvised in military folk songs during harsh times. Therefore, it is clear that this music often evoked feelings of confusion and chaos emotions. Using heavy music instruments like Brass, pipe, Bag pipe, Drums, and long horns, make the people who listen seem to have a noisy effect but in terms of modern music, this music is admired by a lot of people.
- Balkan Brass Bands: What are two key characteristics of Balkan Brass Band music?
Often-sufficient musical climaxes and strong rhythms are the main features of the Balkan Brass Band music. Producing soundtracks like “Ivan’s tune” and “Cucek na Sudahan” shows that Balkan Brass Band had a strong impact by developing rhytyms which were different from the other composers, and changing the tempo of their songs at the climax of the song, which was interesting figure for the audience. Their live performance also showed that, a lot of audience was there to listen them.
- Bollywood Filmi Music: Contrast Bollywood Filmi Music to your experience with hearing American soundtracks.
Whenever I listen to Bollywood Filmi Music and American soundtracks, I always realize a lot of differences. First, Bollywood Filmi Music is somehow rooted in spirituality and has a deep connection with nature. This aspect is contrary to what American soundtrack exhibit. American soundtracks are more based on personal experiences, entertainments and occasions with dance celebrations. Again, American soundtrack are more focused on harmony; distinct notes are performed together rather being played in sequence. On the other hand, Bollywood Filmi Music stresses more on melody developed utilizing a sequence of notes; distinct melodies are created utilizing the rules of distinct ragas.
- Calypso: What factor greatly contributed to the success of Calypso music in the United States?
Calypso music is very intriguing and brought the Calypsonian musicians together. One of the main reasons for the success of Calypso in the US is that many Americans town and cities have vibrant music scenes that supported the activities of the Calypso musicians. Moreover, this music incorporated elements derived from indigenous music which made the music more interesting and inspiring thus making more American feel attached to it. Again, the music was cheap and easy to perform. Lastly, the music was embraced by famous individuals such as Harry Belafonte’s who sold more than one million copies of Calypso music.
- Calypso: Explain “Extempo”. How successful do you predict this type of competition would be in the United States?
Extempo is an improvised form of calypso which is most popular in Tobago and Trinidad. It entails a performer improvising in a lyric or in a rhythmic speech on a specific theme in front of an audience who themselves take turns to perform. Extempo is equal or less a traditional African song where the soloist pronounces the lyric while the chorus sings a refrain. When the melody is given the performers turns to each other while improvising in turn. I predict that this competition will not do well in the United States because the entire artists and audiences are looking forward to advancing and incorporating recent technology in the way they compose and perform their music. Generally, this form of competition is passed by events.
- Reggae: What does the term, “reggae” encompass?
The word reggae entails the entire famous Jamaican musical genre such as Rocksteady, dub, roots reggae, Dancehall, Ska, and the unique Jamaican system. Reggae consists some of the musical elements of blues and rhythm, and jazz, calypso, African music, and other genres as well. One of the most recognized factors in reggae is offbeat rhythm, which is played by a guitar or piano on the offbeats of the instruments. The tempo of reggae is likely to be slower than ska but is faster than rocksteady. The concept of music that call and response are aligned together can be found in reggae music.
- Reggae: Discuss the fusion of other music genres with Reggae in the late 1950’s – the early ‘60s.
Reggae is music genre that evolved from Jamaica and most specifically Jamaican ska music of the mid-1950s. The genre was fused by American R ‘n’B, Jazz, Funk and rocksteady drum beats. The reggae styles quickly became popular in the 1960s and emerged as the country’s dominant music. Besides, some other genre such as Jazz fusion is a musical genre that emerged in the mid-1960s. In this fusion developed after artists combined aspects of jazz harmony improvisation with styles like rock, blues, funk, rhythm and Latin jazz.
- Reggae: Discuss the faith of “Rastafarians” and its influence on Reggae music.
Rastafarians believe in a singles God who is known as Jah. They trust that Jah lives within each person. They also give the former emperor of Ethiopia referred as Haile Selassie central importance. Their belief in the bible is called “rastology.” These beliefs unites the reggae artists and Rastafarians beliefs and practices intensified the reggae effects and enhanced individual’s sensations. Reggae musician like Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Morgan Heritage were most likely to use Rastafarian concept in their music styles, which was influenced by the belief and the religion in the community.
- Celtic: List the major instruments used in Celtic music compositions.
Flute, tin whistle, fiddle, bombarded, banjo, mandolins, guitars, bagpipes, piano accordion, and button accordion are the major music instruments which are used in Celtic music. These instruments depict the overall tradition fo Celtic music providing a unique type of music background.
- Celtic: Describe the sound and mood of the Celtic music.
This music covers the indigenous music of the Celtic countries such as Scotland, Brittany and Galicia. This genre of music conveys a rainy mood and posses the authentic Scottish and Irish sounds. The Celtic music type is mostly governed by the past traditions in the music which was also based on a rainy and wet feeling, which tells about the unique music tradition shown by the Celtic music.
- Chinese Traditional: Which musical instruments are most prominent in Chinese Traditional music?
Guzheng, pipa, erhu, yangqin, huobusi, konghou, drum and dizi which are created only for Chinese music are the widest used instruments in Chinese music. Each instrument displays a unique music sound which reflects on the Chinese culture.
- Define the “Golden Era” of Chinese Traditional music.
The golden era of Chinese traditional music refers to the period of necessary improvements in philosophy, literature and science. Note that a lot of aspects of life are linked to this traditional China period including complex civil service examinations, cultivation of rice and technological innovations.
- Danzon: How did Danzon music get its name?
Danzon was a word derived from two words; Danza and son. Danza and son are two styles of dance. Danzon is dance obtained from the African Antigua region. Referring to this dance style, its music was given a name as Danzon music which is more like the dance of Danza and son.
- Danzon: In what way did Danzon music change in the late 1930’s?
In 1930, the Danzon music was dominated by charangas, cello, guiro, flute, double drums, bass, ensembles featuring violin and flute replacing all of the “orquestas típicas”. These songs gave birth to the mambo. Moreover, the Danzon lyrics advanced in 1930 to include at least two vocalists. More importantly, Danzon music grew in popularity in the late 1930s.
- South Africa Pop: How did apartheid influence the music in South Africa?
The impact of apartheid on pop music in South Africa can be well seen whether through instrumentations choices, lyrics or genre. During this time composers of the Pop songs were not allowed to produce songs with foreign influences; pop songs were strictly supposed to contain aspects of traditional African music. Moreover, apartheid made the pop songs to be used as an object to convey musician’s feelings and encourage protest against apartheid. In fact, the pop music in South Africa shifted from mirroring the common concerns and experiences in the early decades of apartheid to functioning as a force to push the state and actively create an alternative social and political reality.
- South Africa Pop: What changes occurred in South African Pop after Nelson Mandela’s election to the presidency.
Nelson Mandela is known for the abolishment of apartheid in South Africa. After the Nelson Mandela was elected as the president, a lot of changes occurred on the Pop music which included: the pop music was used as an unofficial anthem and slogan by political parties and international anti-apartheid movement. Without the consent of president, it was used unofficially as the national theme music which concerned a lot of people. Again, the Pop music rose to prominence as the composers of these songs were embraced not only by Nelson Mandela but the society as well because the songs helped the release of Nelson Mandela. Apart from the primary issues, the music played an emotional part in the release of Mandela because of its effect on the people of South Africa.
Hoffer, C. (2017). Introduction to music education. Waveland Press.