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Children’s Learning Research Paper

Absent parents, technology too present

Added to this is the family situation: most children grow up with the constant absence of their parents due to work issues. At the same time, they face a very high demand from their parents and teachers both at school and in extracurricular activities.

The too saturated schedules and the constant pressure of their environment to be the best and comply with various activities can cause behavioral disorders. “We see children who are exhausted at school, sleeping in class, angry and irritable,” and their emotional reactions are also altered at home.

“In other cases children are playing at school during classes or when doing homework”, since the game is a natural part of their development and they need to carry it out at some point, says Brenda Rodríguez, a teacher in integral family therapy, specialist in psychotherapy of children and adolescents.

How the early use of technology modifies our brain

Many parents feel that their children are very intelligent because they are able to use electronic devices, but teaching children to perform tasks too complex before their “system is ready to carry them out, can produce permanent deficiencies in the ability to learn as long life “, according to members of the research group in Neuroplasticity and Learning of the University of Granad a, coordinated by psychologist Milagros Gallo.

This phenomenon can be due to two reasons: on the one hand, that the person is emotionally blocked, or that the memory system is modified. “In both cases, the result is the same: you learn worse if you have taught us using complex techniques before the brain has formed properly,” explains Gallo.

The German philosopher Christoph Türcke has said that “the hyper stimulation of our audiovisual culture has given rise to a regime of attention characterized by ‘ concentrated distraction ‘”. In the long run, this situation affects the ability of children to persevere in tasks, remember and build clear sentences.

Therefore, “the approach to technology must be directed and accompanied,” says psychologist Alma Rosa Hernández, a psychoanalytically oriented therapist and preschool teacher. Parents should organize the time their children will use the computer or other devices, and monitor the content that will be viewed.

Above all, “electronic devices should not replace the attention and presence of parents,” emphasizes the expert, since it is a fact that the quality of attachment relationships with caregivers during the first years of life is crucial for development cognitive of the child.

How does technology affect children’s learning?

The use of technology by students is a subject that has pros and cons. Even so, we can recognize, in general terms, that its proper use can have a positive impact on learning, especially if we consider that today children do not learn in the same way as they did a few years ago. In this scenario, it is worth asking: what is the place that should be given to technology in the lives of children? How much does excessive use affect brain development?  The neuropsychiatric child, Amanda Céspedes, talks about this in an interview conducted by the Edu car Group and that we found interesting to share with you:

Amanda Céspedes:

“Digital technologies are changing the minds and minds of children”

For this outstanding child neuropsychiatrist, all pre-technological time was better. Ensures that digital technology has penetrated our homes and social relationships, affecting the skills to relate and reducing the time to share face to face. In this interview we will know punctually how it impacts on the development of children and adolescents.

It is common to see children and adolescents spend hours in front of a tablet or smartphone, seduced and oblivious to the “real” world. Does this habit affect your intellectual and affective growth? Amanda Céspedes, a child neuropsychiatrist,  says that it is a complex issue, and even more so before the age of 10, a stage in which the various brain functions are being rapidly developed at the service of interpersonal communication. Digital technologies are changing the minds and minds of children. ”

When do we talk about “excessive use” of digital devices in children and adolescents?

– I am very drastic: Before the age of five, children should not use digital devices as a means of entertainment and / or communication. Between 6 and 12 years, the use of devices (tablets, smartphones, etc.) should be less than two hours per day, adding entertainment and school work. In adolescents, being connected to social networks should not exceed three hours per day and, if possible, parceled.

What impact does the age at which children begin to use digital technologies have?

-The earlier children start using digital technologies, the less social skills are developed such as the ability to read the mind of the other through the eyes, the reading of non-verbal cues, the pragmatic (quickly adapt the behavior to context), empathy and spatial attention (quickly collect context data). It diminishes the use of sociolinguistic rules (giving thanks, asking for permission, smiling) and privileging the fleeting social contact.

What are the reasons that lead children and teenagers to spend long periods in front of multiple screens?

-The screens offer an extraordinarily attractive material from every point of view (thematic, graphic, sense of control); they generate a high expectation in front of the reward (games) or they are very gratifying for their content (movies, series). They raise the release of a molecule called dopamine, which causes enjoyment, expectation, interest, curiosity. Many of them are available to the interested party anywhere and at any time and their contents can be chosen. They serve as an antidote against boredom, loneliness, grief. All this gives them a quality called “gratification”. They are very rewarding, and the human being loves what gratifies him. The dilemma is that if the child, adolescent or adult spends long hours in front of a screen, the gratification system becomes overactive and triggers addictive behavior, because the brain begins to need dopamine. The fundamental question is why a child or a teenager – or an adult – cannot turn off the screen to immerse themselves in real life? The answer is: because real life is ungrateful. It is an escape.

What is the appropriate age for a child to start using ICT?

-Digital technologies (ICT) are a splendid resource when used in the classroom, with well-defined objectives. They develop creativity, divergent and convergent thinking, executive intelligence, originality, etc. It is different when ICTs become the source of entertainment at home, a resource that allows parents to ignore their children for a long time because they know they are “in good hands”. I am an ardent fan of ICT in the classroom, as long as they know how to use it and can be used in preschool as long as they do not become “the” only methodological resource. Kindergartners need direct experiences.

What care should teachers have when incorporating ICT as a teaching tool?

-The use of ICT as a methodological resource is very innovative and stimulating for children, but should be avoided as a means to evade the teacher’s main duty, which is to accompany students to create their learning, to make sense, to apply them creatively. It is not enough to turn on the laptop or computers to believe they are learning in an innovative way. The teacher is key, and must be a pedagogue who knows how to use ICT; that they are a natural part of their methodologies, because children perceive when the teacher, a digital immigrant, shows their weaknesses in front of students who are digital natives and dominate the technology in a very fluid way, leaving the teacher at a disadvantage, which loses leadership.

Utility and risk in the consumption of new technologies at an early age, from the perspective of parents


According to the criteria of the parents surveyed on the usefulness of the consumption of information technologies and communications at an early age, it is highlighted that approximately 80% of the parents surveyed consider that these technologies facilitate the care of the minor (n = 13: 78.5%), generate free time (n = 143: 85.7%), allows for other tasks (n = 134: 80.3%) and constitutes a safe activity (n = 134: 80.3%).

Also, parents of children under three years of age in the city of Santa Clara have a very inadequate perception of risk (n = 100: 59.9%) and inadequate (n = 40: 24.0%) before the use of information and communication technologies in these ages. It is significant that only 2.4% (4 parents) have an adequate perception of risk, since they identify the dangers and negative consequences of the use of these means in children under 3 years of age. The Figures 1 and 2 and Table 1 to analyze these results in detail.

The greater number of parents considers that the use of television and other information and communication technologies almost never (from 35 to 50 parents) or never (from 70 to 82 parents) affect the development of children. Only figures close to 20 parents value the risks of the use of these technologies in the development of their children under 3 years old at their best; that is to say that “always” these technologies lead to affectations in the psychic development of the minor.

The figure 2 shows that 78.5% (120) of parents consider the use of new information technologies and communication in children at an early age do not generate any danger; only 6.0% (10) consider the opposite. This allows to corroborate the danger for the correct and normal development of children at an early age that their parents do not handle the risk criterion that implies the excessive use of these means in the initial stages of life.

In Table 1 shows that 71.3% of parents with children under 3 years consider “normal” average exposure time for their children to information technology and communications which ranges from less than 1 hour until more than 6 hours. It is significant to note that 75% of parents whose children consume more than 6 hours a day of TV value this as normal and that the remaining 25% consider it “very little”. The most appropriate criteria in this regard and that could indicate a more adequate perception of risk can be found in the 13 parents who recognize a high consumption – “a lot” or “quite” -.
In table 2 It is observed that the ways of obtaining information on the effects that information and communication technologies can produce on children under 3 years of age are insufficient. In this sense, more than 60% of parents recognize that they do not receive information by any of the mass media that are referred to in the survey.

They also do not receive information on these subjects, through other people or through the use of folding and murals, more than 70% of the subjects surveyed.
In Table 3 shows that the frequency with which parents receive information on the subject fluctuates to a greater extent, including rare (n = 67: 40.1%), occasionally (n = 47: 28.1%) and never (n = 33: 19.7%); also found, at these levels, the percentages of higher responses, which pay a low perception of risk inadequate criteria and very inadequate for the behavior of this variable. It is also significant to find 15 parents who, despite receiving frequent information on this topic, do not value the danger of this consumption.
In the Table 4 shows that parents with a low level of information on this topic underestimate the risks of these technologies and “accept their supposed advantages” in terms of utility. Note that 89.1% who never receive information on the subject, consider “very useful” or “useful” information and communication technologies. Similar results are obtained for those who receive information occasionally (n = 35: 74.5%) or infrequent (n = 55: 82.1%). From these results it is significant that of the 17 parents who receive frequent information on these subjects, 12 continue to consider the usefulness of using these media.


In the study conducted, a very inadequate perception of risk was found in most of the parents of children under three years of age in the city of Santa Clara, with respect to the influence of the new information and communication technologies, in the development of their children at early ages of life. In this regard, they estimate that the use of television and other audiovisual media almost never or never affect the development of children.

These data are representative of the fact that there is a complete ignorance on the part of the parents of the effects and negative consequences that new technologies can cause in their children in relation to processes such as: thinking, language, generation of affection and socialization. In line with this, Schmitt and Anderson argue that television images fail to offer children of these ages the same amount and quality of details they get from real life, which limits their learning.

In this regard, Quiroga states that television influences the social and cognitive development of the child, in the acquisition of language and also in the consolidation of self-regulation in vulnerable children even when it is not known how much exposure to the media is necessary to produce large impacts, nor for how many children there is risk. 22

Llopis affirms that the influence of television on the infantile life passes through the parents, even though they are not aware of the mediating role they play. The relationship is not bilateral: television-children, but mediated: television-children-parents. In this regard, he considers that the control and use of television depend on the educational strategies used by parents on a daily basis to regulate children’s television consumption. 23 In our opinion, if parents consider that it is “healthy” for their child to see the audiovisual media from the first months of life, it is logical to think that they will expose their children to this consumption.

Leyda Cruz believes that when the relationships established by the adult with the child or the activities that it encourages do not allow the infant to develop its governing activity, socialize with its peers or make use of the language, by hypoestimulation, the appropriate development of the child is compromised. child in this stage and the subsequent ones. 24

It was also found that the parents of the city of Santa Clara consider that information and communication technologies are useful for the care of the child. In this regard, they point out that the time the child is watching television can be used to attend other tasks and they consider that it “does not constitute a danger to the child”.

These elements-low risk perception and family valuation on the utility of consumption- could be the result of the scarcity of information that the population has about a problem that has become generalized in current Cuban society. In this last aspect it was found that parents receive very rarely information about these topics.

The fact that some parents receive frequent information on the subject and still consider the use of these technologies as positive in the development of their children or do not adequately assess their risks could indicate that the information received so far is not enough to change beliefs and attitudes around the subject. In this regard, new research would be necessary to deepen this dissonance, which is an area not explored by the present investigation.


The parents of the city of Santa Clara consider that television and other audiovisual media facilitate the care of the child, generate free time, allow other tasks to be attended and constitute a safe activity. In this sense, it is observed that the boom in the use of information and communication technologies in children of an early age coexists with a low perception of the parents’ risk of the effects that these technologies can have on the child’s development. This low perception of risk found in the parents of the city of Santa Clara; together with the “supposed advantages” that they perceive in the use of these technologies is the result of the scarcity of information that the population has about a problem that has become generalized in current Cuban society.

The study aims to draw attention to the fact that urgent efforts and interventions are needed that contribute to increasing the perception of risk in the family environment about the risks involved in the consumption of new technologies in children under 3 years of age. The researchers start from the premise that this consumption begins in these ages under the mediation of the parents and that it corresponds to them to avoid the use of information and communication technologies during the first three years of life; and, control the exposure time and the content of the programs, during the following years.

The positive effect of technological devices

Studies developed by Certain and Kahn (2001), Rideout, Vandewater, Wartella (2003) and Hamel (2006) establish that:

“17% of children between 0 and 11 months, 48% of 12 to 23 months, and 41% of 24 to 35 months sees more than two hours of television every day. On a typical day, 68% of children under 2 years of age use the screens […]. 35% saw educational programs for children, 40% a mix between educational programs and best online casino entertainment for children and 20% programs for children and adults (Rideout and Hamel, 2006) the average age at which children begin to watch television is at 9 months. “(Rodríguez Sánchez, 2012, 26)

In this regard, the National Television Council of Chile carried out a research work in which it was determined that as the age of a child grows, the more time he dedicates to television. In the study, it was concluded that children between 19 and 23 months of age (a little less than 2 years old) watch an average of 2.86 hours per day of television and almost an hour do so alone. By leaving a child watching TV for so long, he may be negatively affected by this stimulus. This means that the activity carried out by the child is only receptive, which causes him to stay away from the reality that surrounds him, that is, he enters an imaginative world and loses his capacity for social interaction. If a child remains in this imaginary world for a long time, it can then become harder to keep him away from him.

How to prevent technological ‘addiction’ in children

When the Capio Nightingale hospital opened its Technology Addiction Services in 2010, the youngest patients were as young as twelve years old. The children however come to the consultation at younger and younger ages, and this week has transcended the case of a four-year-old girl with an “extreme addiction” to the iPad who had to go through psychiatric treatment in order to overcome it.

“Children are born today in a technological environment and many parents tend to use computers, iPads and smartphones as if they were nannies,” declares Dr. Richard Graham, the psychiatrist at the London hospital who gave this week the voice of alarm for cases of addiction in early childhood. “If the child is left long hours magnetized to a screen , and if he sees his parents doing the same, we are creating the conditions for a sick relationship with technology.”

Graham invites parents and children to look at technology with the same eyes as food … “Just as there are healthy foods and junk food, there is a healthy relationship and a really toxic one with technology. to create from an early age, as it happens with obesity, so it is convenient to take into account the symptoms , and start treating them as soon as possible, before our children become ‘screenagers’ (adolescents on the screen) ” .

Symptoms of addiction and solutions

Does your child have trouble sleeping? Do you react with tantrums when it is time to press the ‘off’ button? Do you go through frequent states of anxiety and aggression when you do not have your daily ‘dose’ of technology?

“These are some of the clearest signs that a child can be hooked,” says Graham, who has adapted the ‘detoxification’ programs of adults to the little ones. “We are in any case before a changing world that forces us to adapt constantly, and each child is unique.”

The ‘detoxification’ happens in any case by a stimulus of activities off the screen, from social activities that require face to face to the practice of sports and outdoor activities … “Technology is here to stay, but there is that counteract it precisely with physical activity and with contact with nature, these are habits that children have to learn as soon as possible.”

“The biggest responsibility is for families, but schools also play a fundamental role in teaching children a healthy and balanced relationship with technology,” says Dr. Graham. “And that relationship must begin to build from mutual trust … If children are strictly prohibited technology, they will feel the attraction of the forbidden and will tend to use it secretly, in the same way that a drug addict or alcohol. ”

Graham is not in favor of declaring children’s dormitories as a ‘technology-free zone’, but he does believe in the convenience of setting time limits, keeping the door open to control their use “and to ensure above all that children do not use screens an hour before sleeping, so that it does not interfere in the dream “.

Limits also for parents

The American Psychiatric Association recommends that children not be exposed to more than two hours of daily screen time (including television), although Graham is not in favor of declaring a minimum age of exposure to screens or imposing a rigid limit …

“Everything depends on each child, there are those who know how to make a positive and creative use of the screen from a very early age, others are more passive and do not go beyond entertainment games, but let’s say that above three or four hours, taking into account all the screens, we are usually in the limit of a “healthy diet”.

Graham also criticizes the cultural and commercial pressure, and the advent of the ‘iNanny’, with technologies designed to engage children at increasingly younger ages. Even so, the psychiatrist expert in addictions urges parents not to fall into technological fatalism and, above all, to lead by example … “It is very easy to criticize children and despair with them regardless of what they do. We are doing all day long the smartphone and emails, we have to show children, from very early ages, everything that life can offer beyond technology “.

Using technology for children

The rhythm of life of the families of today, force us to use technology as an indispensable tool to perform several of the tasks of day to day. For example, if we have to cook … we no longer call our mother or mother-in-law to ask about the portions indicated for such preparation, but we look for the recipe on the internet and already -and by the way, we avoid the long conversation of the And what will the Weekend?-.
In the case of families with children of school age, technology becomes indispensable when doing tasks. Nowadays it is enough to “search” for the information or topic that we need on the web and that’s it.

How we see technology and the internet is really useful and necessary to lighten our daily task, but what happens when children are directly the users of this? As in everything, there are detractors and allies against the use of technological devices by the youngest members of the household, especially when it comes to the use of social networks.

In 2015, a secure Internet VTR study was published, which indicated that one out of every three children has had access to a cell phone or tablet, and that one out of every two children of five already has their own tablet. In addition, 40% of children of the same age already have a cell phone.


Current studies on the dangerousness of television for young children need to be supplemented by broader experiments, and especially over longer periods. But we believe that the current results are sufficiently concordant to justify the establishment of prevention programs, especially since many parents think that television can promote the learning of their young child.

In August 2007, a petition launched at our initiative was relayed by the Associations of professionals of the early childhood and the Collective Inter-Associative Childhood and Media (CIEM). It encouraged the Higher Audiovisual Council (CSA) and the Ministry of Health to consider the exposure of young children to television as a public health problem and, since November 2008, television channels for children less than three years must accompany their programs with the following warning: “This is a message from the Superior Council of the Audiovisual and the Ministry of Health: watching television can slow down the development of children under three years, even when it comes to channels that specifically address them. In the same way, all off-screen communication media (such as subscriber logs, the Internet, etc.) must include the following: “Watching television, including channels shown to be specifically designed for children under the age of three, may result in developmental disorders such as passivity, language delay, agitation, sleep disorders, impaired concentration and screen dependence. ”

This is a first step, it must be followed by others. This warning concerns only channels explicitly intended for babies, whereas it should concern them all. A vast information campaign for parents and educators should be launched, which the National Institute of Prevention and Health Education (INPES) could be the instigator.

But we also believe that prevention should be done by setting up activities such as “The Three Figures Game” in the nursery classes. Not only does it reduce identifications to the roles of aggressors and victims, it also encourages the call to the adult to resolve conflicts, but it also fulfills three conditions: it corresponds to the priority objectives for the maternal classes (such as appropriation oral language, socialization and body expression), it does not stigmatize any young person and finally its implementation costs little and presents little difficulty since three days of training are enough.

This is why we propose that teachers who wish to engage in this can do so, with the setting up of a specific optional training for them. Because television consumption of the young child continues to produce effects well beyond three years!

The study that will dissuade you from exposing your children to screens

Children and adolescents live “immersed” in a world of screens of all kinds, which is not without consequence on their development.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has been investigating the use of display devices among the youngest, and does not hide its concern. In summary :

“Today’s children are growing immersed in a world of screens, which has both positive and negative effects on development.”

The era of screens

Pediatricians recall first the following observations:

  • Children under 8 spend less and less time watching television (from 2.24 hours in 2002 to 1.59 hours in 2012 ), competing with streaming platforms like YouTube and Netflix.
  • 75% of teenagers have a smartphone, which allows them to access the internet, watch videos, and interact with apps. 91% of them connect from mobile devices (phone, tablet), so that a quarter of teenagers are described as “constantly connected” to the internet.
  • 76% of teens use at least one social network, and Facebook remains the most popular. Even though 70% of them have a “social network portfolio”, including Twitter and Instagram.
  • Four out of five homes have a device used to play video games. Gamers are mostly boys , 91% said they have a games console and 84% play games on their phones.

The AAP takes advantage of these findings to emphasize that the time spent on screens continues to grow, and from an early age.

Harmful effects

  • Obesity

This increases the risk of obesity and affects sleep. The American Academy recommends limiting the time of “sedentary activity in front of a screen” to 2 hours or less.

“The increase in calories consumed during snacks in front of the television has been pointed out as a significant risk of obesity,” says the AAP. “And having a TV in his room continues to be associated with the risk of obesity.”

  • Depression

The use of social networks also increases the risk of depression, especially for adolescents who use them passively (that is, they look at others’ photos without interacting or publishing them themselves).

  • Sleeping troubles

Beyond that, the Academy points to an increase in sleep disorders among those who sleep with their phones. Generated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the light of the screen activates 100 times more the photosensitive retinal receptors than the white light of a lamp. As a result, even with a low brightness, the laptop screen is awake, delaying the internal clock and impacting the quality of sleep.

“Exposure to light (especially blue light) and screen activity before sleep affect melatonin levels and can delay or disrupt sleep,” she says.

  • School failure

The Academy also points to the “negative effect on school results”. Especially since American pediatricians have noticed that “many children and adolescents use entertainment media at the same time that they perform other activities, such as homework”.

  • Early exposure to alcohol, tobacco and sex

Worse, the PAA links this growing exposure to the media to a rejuvenation of alcohol, tobacco and sex initiation. In support of this argument, an Anglo-Saxon study has shown that leading brands of alcohol have strengthened their presence on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube in recent years. And that 12% of 10-19 year olds have already sent a sex photo to someone else.

  • Relationship issues

Finally, parents are also pointed at their uses. The Academy reports that a parent who turns his attention away from his child to watch his cell phone will have a poorer relationship with his offspring. As a result, these distractions would have negative consequences on emotional and social development.

Disconnection times

To help parents, American pediatricians offer an online tool (only in English) providing advice. Here’s what to remember:

  • Avoid any use of screens for children under 18 months, other than chat applications.
  • Prefer high quality programs to introduce screens to children 18 to 24 months, always accompanying them to explain what they see.
  • Imposing time limits: 1 hour screen per day maximum for children from 2 to 5 years, accompanying them to understand what they look, and little beyond. Ensure screens do not reduce sleep, physical activity or other health-related behaviors.
  • Create “screenless” moments and places, such as dinner time, car driving, or bedroom.
  • Repeat discussions on citizenship and online safety, both on respect for others and the protection of one’s privacy.

Exit the use of the tablet to calm the child and have peace. Farewell also the smartphone used all night by the teen, now subject to a “curfew”.

The AAP also warns against the “passive screen”, that is to say the one that stays on even if nobody looks at it. “The child builds his spatial bearings in interactions with the environment that involve all the senses”, explains to the ” World ” Dr. François-Marie Caron, pediatrician and member of the French Association of Ambulatory Pediatrics (AFPA).

“We have never had so many requests for consultation for children, younger and younger, with attention difficulties, speech-language delays, learning difficulties …”, says Carole Vanhoutte , speech therapist and co-founder of the think group Joue pense parle, on a daily basis.

No more than one hour of screen per day for 2 to 5 years

Screen time for children aged 2 to 5 must be limited, according to the Canadian Pediatric Society (CPS), who suggest less than an hour a day. As for children under two, it is not recommended at all to leave them in front of the TV and computer screens.

Exposure to digital media is increasing in the family life of Canadians, notes the Society. And parents’ worries about the effects of screen time on their children are also increasing, she said at the outset by publishing a document on Thursday that is a statement of principles, after conducting a review of the literature scientist on this issue.

By “screen time” is meant here all the time spent in front of them, whatever the means: smart phones, tablets, televisions, video games, computers and all portable technology.

And this proposed limit is not currently being met: in 2014, the Healthy Kids Canada charity found that children ages 3 to 5 spend an average of two hours a day in front of a screen – more than double the recommended number.

By the way, only 15% of preschoolers spend less than an hour a day in front of a TV or tablet, according to another study cited.

And it’s not right at home: many preschoolers have screen time at home and in child care, the company says.

Dependence apprehended

Why did CPA focus on this age group specifically?

First, because the child’s first experiences with screens can be crucial, she says, citing many studies. And then, they can create addiction, and overexposure during infancy increases the likelihood of overuse later. Also because health-related habits, including the use of the media, crystallize more easily during infancy than later.

The Society wanted to identify the benefits and potential risks of screen time for children under 5 years of age. Among the aspects evaluated, she looked at the impact on brain development.

In this regard, she concludes that it is not known if early exposure to screen media changes the developing brain. On the other hand, a strong exposure to the television in the background is detrimental to the use and acquisition of language and level of attention, the report says.

Social skills

But it’s not all bad: from the age of about two, well-designed, age-appropriate television programs with specific educational goals can be an additional way to improve social skills. and language skills of all children 2 years and older, especially those living in poverty or otherwise disadvantaged.

They can also encourage positive attitudes towards ethnic groups.

The Society advises limiting screen time, but it also suggests that parents look at the content with their children, to make connections between content and reality and to reinforce skills such as attention, memory and the reflection. It is also recommended that parents switch between activities involving screens and active play.


As we have seen, most studies agree to support and give empirical support to the recommendations made by the AAP , according to which children under two should not have any exposure to screens and those over this age should see it limited to two. Daily hours.

Most studies warn of the negative effects that health can have at different levels on overexposure to screens (television, mobile, tablets, etc.) At best, and provided that the maximum exposure time is respected , the vision of educational programs appropriate to the age of the child or the use of educational applications seems to have no negative effect or even show some beneficial effect , but this is not superior to what can be experienced through other educational materials or through direct experimentation with the environment.

Excess exposure to screens occupies a time that otherwise could have been used in problem solving, reading, sports, hobby development or interaction time with family and friends, outdoor activities or in contact with the nature, etc. For Hammermeister and cols (2005)  the little time spent in social interaction with peers can be the cause of the association that exists between the excess of television and more timid, lonely and depressive personalities , compared to people who do not watch television or they do it in a more moderate way (following the recommendations of the AAP). If we talked in economic terms we would say that exposure to screens has a high opportunity cost : the non-involvement in other alternatives that may have clear benefits at the psychosocial level.

Technology is not bad. It is not the television, nor the mobiles, nor the tablets, nor the cars. You only have to take into account to whom it is directed and to regulate its use in a conscious way. Cars are not bad, but we do not allow children to drive, and it will always be more advisable to go for bread walking than to do it by car. This is not why cars are bad, but a bad use of them can have very negative health implications.

Children know the world through their parents. The screens disconnect them, they do not exist the child for a while. It is comfortable, but it has a cost that translates into fewer opportunities for interaction and learning. For the same reason we must also limit the use of these personal devices in front of them : because in the same way we are reducing the quantity and quality of the interaction with them, which will have consequences for their development.

How does technology affect children and young people?

The use of technological means have advantages and disadvantages for the reason that it serves as a distraction for many have disregarded verbal communications by technology and understand and understand that we are in a globalized world but even in the family environment there is no longer an interaction between parents and children a more fluid communication. The use of this technology in a child who spends the day locked in his room with technological devices and consulting social networks can develop a problem in the development of their communication skills. advice on how to make good use of technological means.
The use of new technologies has modified the abilities and behavior of children, because although they have more mental ability limit their motor development, which causes attention deficit, depression and diseases that were previously exclusive to adults by the implementation of video games.
These types of technological devices have turned young people to not be prepared for life and face face to face, both mentally and physically is not enough to lead a healthy life, physically does not have the qualities to exercise and want to do an activity, and mentally can not think for themselves because they burned the only neurons that had in video games or television cell phones and any device that greatly distracts young people in the classroom or in the classroom homes for hours and even days.

Nowadays, technologies have become a companion for both children and young people at an early age. Many specialists focus on the theory that children learn by building their own knowledge and continuously discovering new things. Based on this premise it seems correct to facilitate the use of technologies, because they would challenge the child to develop his own learning process.
On the other hand (Rosen 2005) emphasizes that although technology helps children and adolescents to develop their personality, continuous exposure without control could generate a problem in terms of developing their communication skills that affect both children and adolescents if You do not know how to give a good one.
According to the author, we believe that the misuse of technologies can transcend both the child and adolescents negatively and positively, especially in the use of video games that absorb a large amount of time and that are not controlled by his parents can cause lack of communication, lower academic performance, behavioral changes, among others.
therefore, the father, mother or guardian must create trust in their children, that is to say that there is communication between them, that they do not live isolated from reality, that they do not allow their children to give free rein to the misuse of the same, for therefore, it does not mean that they are not going to have to use the technology, it must be remembered that if they use them for educational purposes, they can perfectly use them.
The father and the mother, must monitor the consumption that their children are giving to the technology and they should also share with them about the media and consume certain contents together.
One suggestion is to avoid having the television and computers in their rooms as that isolates them and encourages the absence of interpersonal relationships.

The use of the Internet and video games since childhood has meant that new generations are getting better and better with technology, that they almost use it instinctively and that they handle a wide technological knowledge at an early age. This phenomenon can be both positive and negative; positive in the sense that technology has become a contribution in educational matters, and negative because of the change it generates in the way that children and adolescents have to establish relationships with their peers, in addition to the high risks involved in exposing so much information in the network.
According to the child and youth psychologist Francisca Rodríguez, she believes that technology can have good and bad influences on children and young people in psychological matters. According to the professional, “it is very positive that young people know how to use technology, the internet and social networks, because they are channels that serve them to communicate, but parents they have the responsibility of teaching their children the proper use of technological tools, so that they know how to use them in their favor and not against them. “But in some cases, technology can have a very negative effect on children and young people, because it can provoke isolation from the real world, because they spend many hours surfing the internet, chatting or playing video games, and lose a significant amount of time they could use doing other activities with their peers. young people submit to the internet.
According to research by Hellawell (2001), the use of ICT can help develop new skills and improve employability and self-confidence. Learning to use the Internet can be an opportunity for young people to develop relationships of friendship.

It is impressive the way that changed the way children and adolescents enjoy their childhood, since this is one of the most important stages of life in which the personality develops. and maybe that’s why now our childhood life is rushed and out of the riches that previous generations lived and they did everything in a more innocent and prosperous way in which they did not care more than to enjoy the games and the family, now many relationships nothing more is given in a cybernetic way and even being close the distance is wide since many of the capacities of interacting in a personal way are lost, and more when the forms of study or learning are now given by Internet and rather introduciendoce in forms of resources or didactic material. Due to the fact that technology facilitates more processes every day or updates many people we become slaves of them and it is difficult not to be part of them since we would be cabernicolas in a globalized world. but everything can be based on the way of use or forms that we assign to technology in our environment.

Currently many children and young people have a big problem with technology, a great addiction for it and a difficult leisure to avoid, where their world and way of seeing things is that they seem to idolize technological devices.
These types of technological devices have turned young people to not be prepared for life and face face to face, both mentally and physically is not enough to lead a healthy life, physically does not have the qualities to exercise and want to do an activity, and mentally can not think for themselves because they burned the only neurons they had in video games or television and any device that distracts young people for hours or even days.
To see the incidences of technology in interpersonal relationships, we spoke with the child-youth psychologist Francisca Rodríguez, who believes that technology can have good and bad influences on children and young people in psychological matters. According to the professional, “it is very positive that young people know how to use technology, the internet and social networks, because they are channels that serve them to communicate, but parents have the responsibility to teach their children the proper use of technological tools, so that they know how to use them in their favor and not against “.
Rosen points out that although social networks help pre-adolescents develop their personality, continuous exposure without control could generate a problem in terms of developing their communicative skills for a younger child.
“Human beings are social creatures and the truth is that a screen does not replace the love and care that a caregiver can have with a child. Technology should not replace the company of parents “, warned the expert from the Universidad Iberoamericana.

The use of technology today has been very helpful in the educational area especially in young people and children, since they have a great capacity for learning, even so we must take into account that technology has positive effects and negative effects the inadequate use given to it because parents do not worry about knowing what their children do, nor what they like when they face technology. Young people and children have a great addiction for technology, where it seems that they idolize technological devices. I think that there is too much use of these technologies, causing children to perform more and more physical sports, because they are tied with these devices, it may be good for development, but in excess it would be a serious problem

According to a study conducted by Kaiser in 2009, children aged 8-18 are committed to digital media an average of 7.5 hours per day. Which is a problem, since they are not recommended more than 1-2 hours a day. To avoid the abuse of these technologies.

Currently in most countries the so-called technological revolution is taking place, and this, like any change … brings favorable and, of course, unfavorable repercussions.
In the case of children’s prolonged exposure to the Internet, it could lead to deficits in different directions and behavioral alterations, among which it is worth noting that today children have different options for knowing the world that the Internet offers and ideally is done in a supervised-controlled way, although it is a tool of great benefit for their education, stimulation and learning, there are also certain latent threats, so their exposure to these technological sources must be controlled by their parents or another adult person

According to a study carried out by the School of Medicine of Yale University in 2008, which has been invested for a longer time in technological media using the Internet, there is a greater risk of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, poor school performance and Early initiation of sexual activity for children and adolescents, coupled with the frequent problem of childhood obesity.

A serious central question Technology can affect our behavior with our environment? The answer clearly would be IF and if it occurs in adults, even more so to the young adolescents who are more experimenters in the subject of technology, since this can be considered according to Handkr (2008) ‘A useful tool to educate or to use to inform, to break down barriers and also when used with moderation since there are many risk factors in young people among them is: Danos in health, the behavior of these in educational institutions and at home, and ultimately It affects the personal safety of young people.
Speaking of health risk is because many young people spend up to 21 hours or more per week against different types of technology this ( and if they spend so much time these technologies young people tend to eat more food that contributes Childhood obesity. The negative effects on the school is evidenced by the little time devoted to educational work for the time spent on the use of technologies with low school performance in young people, also the behavior is a factor that young people they show a radical change in behavior, becoming aggressive, isolated from reality,not being able to surf the internet, they show aggressive behavior and mainly affect the safety of young people as they discover many forbidden things that they find interesting. One of them is pornography. send explicit sex images and videos of themselves with their cell phones and young people can be accused of child pornography and a higher risk could be targeted by sexual harassers in chat rooms or social networking sites.
As a conclusion, the young people and the infants of this generation have grown up in the world of computers , portable machines and music, we can not leave it aside because it is part of its existence, including most people of all ages. can not spend a quiet day without a cell phone because they are desperate but there is communication because the idea of ​​communicating drives them crazy, what is needed is greater supervision by parents in the use of technologies, limiting the use of These are programs downloaded from the Internet restricting pages forbidden to minors.



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