Academic Master


According to your readings how did the anti-Mexican sentiment continue to permeate in the United States in the late 1800’s and much of the 20th century? Is it there today?


The anti-Mexican sentiment in the late 1800’s and much of the 20th century in the United States has deep roots of prejudice towards Mexican people. The dominant tendency and practice were to discriminate, humiliate, ignore and disgrace and scandalize the Mexican-origin community. They have been deprived of their social, legal, economic, and political rights in American society. It is right to say that Mexican-origin people did not have any rights at all in the USA. Regarding the labor class of Mexican personals, there were inferior positions for blacks and Mexicans to work. It is a historical fact that these people were skilled in mining. The famous mining companies hire these works as a violation of law as USA law did not allow Mexican to work as the equal status of us citizens. The USA did not even think about the health and living rights of these people.[1]

They were not allowed to get education in institutes of Whites. Huge archives regarding the case proceedings and case judgments witness that Mexicans had no right to education. The US evaluated these people unfit for getting an education, and if they were given privileges and permission, they were bound to open their schools for blacks. The racial discrimination also penetrated the walls of Churches, and Mexicans were not considered as real Christians. Even they were bitterly amalgamated and incorporate into military forces despite their bravery and bodily strength. In other words, the US sentiment towards Mexican people in that specific era was inhumane, highly discriminatory, and humiliating in all walks of life. [2]

However, in present times this bitter phase of prejudice and discrimination has been mended with the passage of time. Second World War was a huge breakthrough in this regard. The Mexican and black communities have social, political, legal, educational, and economic rights. Their freedom, identity, equality as US citizen, has been built like from scratches to castles. We can say that there is sky touching difference in present times comparing to the past. But still, there is space to improve the circumstances to reach the goal of equality of citizens.

Q#2: According to your readings how did the Second World War impact the Mexican Origin Community?


Second World War left unforgettable imprints on the life of the Mexican community and had dark impacts on every individual’s life. Young men and women joined military activities and underwent war. Those who survived came back with a passion for reviving their lives as well as their community. The new sense of independence and self-esteem, and self-confidence arouse among the Mexican community. Those survived soldiers of war later became part and parcel of the gigantic struggle to gain civil rights. The reason behind this spark was the ideological basis of World War II, i.e., a war against injustice as well as against discrimination. The main leading bloodline in this whole episode belonged to labor communities. Most of them were immigrants who came to the USA before the war episode for work and job purposes. The vast movement was initiated under the leadership of some personalities who led the general public to gain their rights, identity, and originality as a Mexican community.[3] The death of many activists in this regard fueled the struggle of people, and considerable police action took place to suppress this struggle. The effort to suppress by using force gave the people freedom sprints to fight for their rights. As the expected and waited results of the Second World War were justice, harmony, freedom, and equality among citizens, which were not come true. In response to these mischiefs, the end of the war led the Mexican people to fight and gain their originality. For the said reason, many personals took the law into their hands which transformed the region’s situation. Many Mexicans and Mexican Americans volunteered themselves due to poverty and discrimination, having emotions to fight for their nation and communities. They offered immense sacrifices to achieve their goals. Meanwhile, the Mexicans living across the borderlines joined with struggle fighters. It provided an opportunity for Mexican and Mexican-American people to get their identity as patriot citizens. They were considered dignified citizens of the United States of America.[4]


  1. Joseph Simms:

Joseph Simms was a distinguished American Scholar who compiled a textbook that contains racist stamens and maxims. His compiled work proved Mexicans as an inferior community with hideous attributes of life leading to evolutionary development from animals.

  1. 1917 Immigration Law:

The immigration law, 1917 was an act to implement restrictions on immigration. It had focus to introduce new categories of literacy tests to stop immigration from Asia-Pacific Zone.

  1. Repatriation (1930s):

The Repatriation (1930s) was the deportation of Mexicans and Mexican Americans ranging from 400,000 to 2,000,000 between 1929 and 1936 from the USA; most of them have birthrights in the USA.

  1. John Box (Texas) :

John Box was a politician and law practitioner from Texas. He was a US representative and well known as a strong racist who died in1941.

  1. Roberto Alvarez vs. Lemon Grove School Board:

Roberto Alvarez vs. Lemon Grove School Board was the first case in the history of the US that ended the racial discrimination policy in January 1931. It was the end of the racial discrimination policy of schools regarding white and black personals in the USA.

  1. Felix Longoria:

Felix Longoria was a soldier from Texas who served American Army during Second World War, he died in 1945, and his body was handed over to his family after few years. His burial was restricted to whites only.

  1. Bracero Program:

It was a program started under an executive order that opened doors of the USA for Mexican people to work as laborers for a short term. It was initiated in1942 that legalized labor work in the USA.

  1. Luisa Moreno:

Luisa Moreno was a social activist and labor leader in the United States. She fought for the rights and equality of citizens in the USA, especially regarding the rights of the labor community.

  1. Zoot Suit Riots:

These riots were started in 1943 by Mexican–American boys against servicemen. Upon the complaints of sailors against Zoot-Suiters, the police arrested and tortured hundreds of Mexican-American young people.

  1. The Bliss Bill:

The Bliss Bill was introduced in 1931 having aim to legalize the separation of Mexican and Mexican American students. The bill was introduced and presented by George R. Bliss.

  1. Ch. 6 of the book: Legacy of Hatred.
  2. Ch. 8 of the book: San Diego’s Ku Klux Klan, 1920-1980.
  3. Ch. 10 of the book:  Los Braceros: Memories of Bracero Workers 1942-1964.
  4. Ch. 9 of the book: World War II and the Emerging Civil Rights Struggle.



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