Academic Master

Environmental Science

What is Atrazine? Essay

Atrazine is a herbicide based weed-killer, which is mainly used in the fields of corn. Atrazine is the very common chemical pollutant on the ground and the surface of the water in the U.S and other countries. It is a strong endocrine-disruptor with killing based harms in wild-life and animals, research laboratory animals and to the human beings. Atrazine chemically sterilizes and feminizes animals and decreases immune system in both laboratory rodents and the wildlife. Atrazine comprises prostate and breast cancer, delays mammary growth, and persuades abortion in research laboratory rodents. Research in human inhabitants and tissue and cells, Research propose that atrazine postures alike intimidations to human beings.

Atrazine is refused by the regulatory approval by the European Union and is, therefore, barred, in the European Union, also in Switzerland, the main place of the manufacturer. Although the ecological and public-health dangers, atrazine endures being rummage-sale in the United States, for economical aims. Atrazine might only upsurge the yield of a corn field by as less as 1.2 percent (and not at all in accord with several studies. The agri-giant Syngenta, though, has a very influential foyer and consumed 250,000 dollars politicization in Minnesota only in the year 2005 to retain atrazine on the marketplace there(Ryan, 1970).

With only 1.2 percent upsurge in the production of corn, a yield that the people eat fewer than 2 percent of, in the earth where more than 20 percent of the populace would decrease due to hunger, it is obligatory on the mankind to be elaborated in the regulatory procedure concerning atrazine. The general public must play an important part in the regulatory-based verdict.

How much Atrazine is applied each year in the U.S.? 

In the U.S in the year 2014, atrazine was the 2nd extensively used herbicide afterwards glyphosate, with more than 76 million pounds of it is used in the crops every year. Atrazine remains to be one of the extensively used herbicides in the Agriculture of Australia. Its use was barred in the EU in the year 2004 when the European Union discovers that the ground-water levels beyond the bounds that are set by controllers and Syngenta can show neither that this might be prevented nor that these stages are harmless.

What does it mean when a chemical is said to be an “endocrine disruptor”?

Endocrine disruptors are the chemical substances that might affect the human’s endocrine-system and produce contrary developing, generative, nervous, and immune-based harms in both the wildlife and human. An extensive variety of chemicals, both man-made and natural, are supposed to source of endocrine disruption, comprising of medicines, dioxin-like and dioxin chemicals, DDT, polychlorinated-biphenyls,  and further insecticides, and plasticizers, for example, biphenyl A. Endocrine-disruptors might originate in several daily kinds of stuff comprising metal-food cans, plastic-bottles, flame-retardants detergents, toys, food, pesticides, and cosmetics. The NIEHS backs the studies to conclude if exposures to endocrine-disruptors might result in the health of human and its harms include less fertility and an bigger occurrence of endometriosis and several cancers. The investigation has shown that endocrine-disruptors might pose an utmost risk in prenatal and initial postnatal progress when neural systems and organ are formed(Armstrong, Chesters, & Harris, 1967).

Describe the experiments and results reported by Tyrone Hayes on Atrazine.  Describe the reaction of Atrazine’s manufacturer to Hayes’ results?

Tyrone Hayes, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, noted that all of the researchers that were unsuccessful to result that atrazine instigated hermaphroditism were overwhelmed by the poor experimental-controls and were subsidized by Syngenta, one of the corporations that are producing this chemical substance. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its self-governing Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) has inspected all of the accessible researches on this subject that includes Hayes’ exertion and decided that there are presently inadequate information available to conclude if atrazine disturbs amphibian progress. Hayes was previously part of the SAP panel, has resigned in the year 2000 to endure his research freely. The EPA and its SAP had made some endorsements about the proper-study design required for the additional study to this matter. As obligatory by the EPA, Syngenta has lead two experimentations in Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) and review by the EPA and German regulatory authorities. The research-paper has concluded that these researchers prove that long-lasting contact of larval X.  laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0. 01 to 100 microg/l do not disturb the development, larval growth, or sexual difference.  An Additional independent research in the year 2008 has determined that the letdown of new researchers to find-out that atrazine feminizes X. laevis calls into interrogation the herbicide’s part of that decline. A study which is inscribed in the Environmental Science and Technology quotes the independent effort of investigators in Japan, which were incapable of imitating Hayes’ effort. The experts have discovered no androgynous frogs; no upsurge in aromatase as measured by aromatase mRNA induction; and no upsurge in vitellogenin, an additional indicator of feminization(Arnold, Hickey, & Harris, 1995).

In 2003 the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) announced that

Atrazine was being reviewed by the EPA because of concerns that the herbicide may be

 Carcinogenic.   Describe the results of that review.

Atrazine is useful in the farming fields or to in the crops to kill the weeds. It is also being used near to the high-ways and railroads for the similar determinations. Several atrazine might enter the atmosphere after it is functional to the mud. Certain atrazine might also be eroded from the ground by precipitation and enters the nearby parts that include lakes, streams, or further water-ways. Certain atrazine might travel from the upper-soil surface to the more profound soil-layers and enters to the ground-water. Afterwards, atrazine is used in the soils; it would stay there for numerous days to some months; in rare circumstances, it might remain in the ground for several years. Though, in the majority of the circumstances, atrazine would be broken-down in the ground over a retro of one rising season. Furthermore, to being detached from the ground, atrazine is also taken-up by the shrubberies and plants that grow there, and this approval is the 1st step to kill the weeds. Every atrazine that is eroded from the ground into the watercourses and other forms of water would stay there for a longer time since the failure of the chemical substances is slower in lakes and river. It would also persevere for a longer time in ground-water. This is one of the reasons why atrazine is usually discovered in the water which is collected from the in taking water-wells in several agricultural areas. If atrazine entered into the air, it could be broken-down by responses with other reactive chemical substances that are present in the air. Although, occasionally atrazine is on elements for example in the dust. When this occurs, breaking down is not probable to happen. Atrazine is detached from the atmosphere mostly because of the rainfall. When atrazine is on the particles of dust, the breeze could blow it long-distances from the adjacent application part. For instance, atrazine is discovered in the rain-water for more than 180 miles from the adjacent application part. Atrazine doesn’t have a habit of to accrue in the living things for example bacteria, clams, algae, or fish, and, consequently, doesn’t have a routine of to build-up in the food-chains.

Majority of the individuals are not bare to atrazine on an everyday basis. Individuals that are living nearer to the places where atrazine was used to yields might be bare over dirty drinking water. Atrazine is discovered at around 20 Super-fund places in the U.S. Individuals that are residing nearer to those places might be bare to the advanced stages of atrazine. If a person is a worker in a factory who works with the atrazine chemical, that person might be bared to advanced level of atrazine chemical. The administration has projected that about 1,000 persons might be bared to the atrazine chemical in the method Atrazine chemical, one of the furthermost extensively used herbicides in the U.S, is deliberately practical to the yields, particularly sugarcane, corn, sorghum, and pineapples. Consequently, persons who live in the nearer places where these yields are grown up, especially the workers in the farm and herbicide-applicators who uses atrazine chemical, might be bared to the atrazine chemical as it is castoff in the farming sector. A person might be bared to the atrazine chemical if he is close when yields are preserved with the atrazine chemical, if a person is involved in the use of atrazine chemical to the yields, or if a person is nearer to other areas where it is used. Majority of the time, atrazine chemical is not discovered in higher concentrations in the atmosphere but might be discovered in higher concentrations in the atmosphere nearer to the disposal amenities or nearer places where it is being used for the yields. A person might also be bared to atrazine chemical by excavating in the dirt that contains atrazine chemical in it. Children might be bared to the atrazine chemical by playing in the mud and dirt that comprises atrazine chemical(Radosevich, Traina, Hao, & Tuovinen, 1995).

Why was Atrazine banned in the European Union in 2004?

Atrazine is a widely used agricultural-herbicide with endocrine disruptor activity. There is an indication that it affects the reproduction system and growth, and might cause cancer. Though the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permitted its continual usage in the year 2003, In the similar year the EU has proclaimed a prohibition of atrazine chemical due to its omnipresent and unavoidable water pollution. The studied supervisory events and administration documents, and report exertions by the producer of atrazine chemical, Syngenta, to affect the United States atrazine valuation, by succumbing faulty scientific based statistics as an indication of no damage, and by conferencing frequently and confidentially with EPA to discuss the administration’s regulatory method. Numerous of the particulars of these discussions endure being suspended from the general public, although EPA rules and regulations and federal open-government rules and regulations that require such choices to be prepared openly. Keywords: atrazine; legislation; industry influence; herbicide; regulation; ethics(Balmer & Sulzberger, 1999).

In 2011 the U.S. National Cancer Institute published an Agricultural Health Study on Atrazine.             

      What were the results of that study?

Atrazine is a triazine herbicide, which is widely used in the U.S. Although it is an animal-based carcinogen, the apparatus in rodents don’t seem to function in human beings. Several epidemiologic types of research have delivered proof of a connotation.

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a potential unit that comprises of 57,310 approved insecticide applicators. In the following report, an earlier AHS study of cancer-related hazard that is related to the self-reported use of atrazine with six further years to the continuation and furthermore than double as numerous cancer cases. By Poisson regression, the reports have calculated the comparative risk approximations and 95% of the confidence intervals for the lifetime usage of atrazine chemical and strength biased lifetime days, which interprets for the aspects that influence exposure.

In General, 36,357 (68%) of the applicators stated the use of atrazine chemical, of which there were around 3,146 cancer cases. There was no upsurge amongst atrazine operators in general cancer-based risks or at the majority of the cancer places in the further higher contact groups as likened with the lowermost. Grounded on 29 bared cases of thyroid cancer, there was a statistically major risk in the 2nd and 4th quartiles of the intensity-weighted lifetime days. There was an alike arrangement for lifetime days. However, neither cancer-based risk approximations nor the trends were statistically major and for neither metric was the trend monotonic.

In General, there was no reliable indication of an organization in-between the usage of atrazine or some cancer place. There was a proposal of the enlarged danger of thyroid-cancer, but these outcomes are founded on moderately fewer numbers and negligible secondary proof.

In 2012 the manufacturer of Atrazine – Syngenta Corporation – was at the centre of a class-

     Action lawsuit.  Describe both the reason for the lawsuit, and the conclusion.

Atrazine chemical run-off into water-supplies has been related to several of the problems. These comprise of enlarged risks related to the environmental damage to amphibians, birth defects, and contamination of local water supplies.

Certain investigations have related atrazine chemical to thoughtful health-based problems. A March 2013 Texas study discovers that offspring that are born in regions with a higher level of atrazine were double as probable to progress certain birth-defects than offspring borns in regions with less level of atrazine. In the year 2002, an EPA risk-based valuation terminated associates in-between cancer and atrazine. This conclusion has continued contentious amongst user groups.

Another contest that atrazine chemical could lead to thoughtful conservational difficulties. A March 2010 study discovers that male’s frogs bared to atrazine chemical levels inside EPA rules and regulations comes out to be more feminine based than protected frogs. Bared frogs develop low levels of testosterone. A minor fraction turns out to be functionally feminine and attaining the capability to lay eggs and mate.

Farmers and Syngenta have energetically protected atrazine chemical from condemnation. They have pointed out to the EPA’s sustained endorsement of atrazine chemical as lately as in the year 2006. Agriculturalists have dependent on atrazine chemical for more than 50 years, and Syngenta has noted that only several investigations from many have discovered that the disclosure to atrazine chemical could indicate argumentative environmental and health-based harms.

The debate over the atrazine chemical has prolonged to the rooms of court. Corporations that produce and sell-out hazardous substances and chemicals could be sued when those substances or chemicals effect predictable damages and injuries. Product obligation rules and regulations permit these claims so that individuals that are wounded by hazardous substances or chemicals could obtain recompense from corporations that are accountable for the substances or chemicals. Liable on the appropriate laws, these rights could be grounded on firm obligation negligence or estates.

Persons who are living in those places where atrazine chemical are usually used must keep a closer eye on the development of atrazine chemical. Females which are pregnant or who might come to be pregnant must consider talking with their physician about the atrazine chemical present in the drinking water.

In 2015 the EPA was to complete a re-evaluation risk assessment for Atrazine.  What were

     the results of that re-assessment?

The Environmental Protection Agency has missed its particular aims for implementation of risk-based assessments in the year 2015 for atrazine chemical, imidacloprid, glyphosate, three extremely controversial, poisonous and frequently used insecticides. The valuations are vital to the thoughtfulness of these intimidations the insecticides poses to the animals, environment, and people.

“These risk assessments aren’t just bureaucratic boxes to be checked,” said by Lori Ann Burd, environmental health director at the Center for Biological Diversity. “Every day that the EPA delays completing these much-needed reviews is a day that people and wildlife in the United States remain at risk from some of the most toxic chemicals in use today.”

Imidacloprid is one of the extensively used pesticides on the planet; seeds preserved with this neonicotinoid are implanted in more than one millions of acres every year. It is extremely poisonous to the bees and extensively associated with their mass die-offs. In the pressure from the White-House to speech affected bee falloffs, the EPA dedicated to complete a pollinator based risk-assessment for the strong pesticide in the year 2015 but has not freed any of such valuation. Imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids are barred in the E.U and through the 150-million-acre nationwide wild-life refuge scheme. The United States Geological Survey has discovered imidacloprid, which is also very poisonous to aquatic invertebrates and birds, in about a quarter of all the streams verified in the review of seven Midwestern states.

The EPA has also dedicated to relief, but unsuccessful to release it, risk-based assessments for glyphosate in the year 2015. With furthermore than 300 million pounds of soaking the United States. Landscape every year, glyphosate is the furthermost frequently used insecticide in the United States. In July 2015 the agency proclaimed that it would be freeing environmental and human-health risk-based valuations for glyphosate, lately professed a likely carcinogen by the WHO and foremost reason for affected monarch butterfly declines. But notwithstanding to the potentials of a seasonal release, the agency has not freed any new risk-based assessments.

  1. Do you think Atrazine should continue to be sold in the U.S?

Atrazine has severe effects on human beings, animals, and the environment and it should be banned in the United States.


Armstrong, D. E., Chesters, G., & Harris, R. F. (1967). Atrazine hydrolysis in the soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 31(1), 61–66.

Arnold, S. M., Hickey, W. J., & Harris, R. F. (1995). Degradation of atrazine by Fenton’s reagent: condition optimization and product quantification. Environmental Science & Technology, 29(8), 2083–2089.

Balmer, M. E., & Sulzberger, B. (1999). Atrazine degradation in irradiated iron/oxalate systems: effects of pH and oxalate. Environmental Science & Technology, 33(14), 2418–2424.

Radosevich, M., Traina, S. J., Hao, Y.-L., & Tuovinen, O. H. (1995). Degradation and mineralization of atrazine by a bacterial soil isolate. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(1), 297–302.

Ryan, G. F. (1970). The resistance of common groundsel to simazine and atrazine. Weed Science, 18(5), 614–616.



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