Water pollution is the result of the overwhelming amount of wastes that come from the various sources of pollutants that may disrupt the balance of the ecosystem. The water wastes cannot be cleaned up and destroyed as soon. Therefore, it may results in the dangerous environment for the human and animals. People should realize the harsh and long term effects of water pollution that sometimes leads towards death. Even if the source of water pollution can be eliminated, the long term effects on humans and animals last ever. All living entities need water to spend their livelihood as it the major constituent of life. It is the ultimate responsibility of every individual to keep the water clean and available. Most of the time, water is available but not usable because of the oil, sewage, chemical wastes, and plastics. It is the ethical responsibility of every one is to save the land and then secure it from water pollution.
“The land ethic simply enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land” (Leopold, p. 109).
“Water pollution is a major hazard globally that worsen the living condition and pose dangers to humans, animals, and water bodies; it could be solved through proper sewage treatments, green agricultural practices, industrial waste water treatment, anti-pollution laws and educative campaigns.”
Discussion and Analysis
With closer examination, two major sources of water pollution are oil and chemical residues. Petroleum products are one of the most poisonous substances to the ecosystem. Oil and chemicals add up in the water due to the accidental falls from ships, pipelines and mostly through leakages. Through such accidents, water becomes contaminated and not remains useful for drinking purpose. There is not any doubt that the oils and chemical wastes are dangerous for water bodies in the lakes, oceans, lakes, and water storage sites. The major disaster of water leakage has been witnessed in the Gulf of Mexico, America. It was the largest oil spill of approximately 176 million gallons. It is not only the worst case disaster but also the most expensive one in America. Its harsh impacts have been observed for years in the water bodies. America has to cost billions of dollars on oil. It was the accidental water disaster, it has killed billion of birds and animals who move towards the lake, ocean, or lake water and when drink contaminated water may face the death (Kostka, pp. 7962-7974).
The contaminated water had damaged birth feathers which result that birds were unable to fly and become the victim of another animal. Plant life was also severely affected due to this water disaster. Most of the Americans have been seriously affected due to the breath in oil contaminated air. May health issues had arisen at that time. Fishes were more attracted towards the oil mixed water as it seems more like food, so it has killed a lot of fishes at that time. The most prominent victim was the birds, water bodies and the animals living near the sea shore. They were severely affected due to water pollution because they do not have the ability to distinguish between the oil slick and clean water.
The other reason behind the water pollution is the plastic or the substance that looks like plastic including nylon, plastic bottles, and plastic bags. According to Somerville and Chris, bottle water produces 1.5 million water wastes every year
that are very higher amount. We think that how the bottle can make the pollution, but we never know that the every year every year, plastic needs 47 million gallons of oil to produce. This amount is as much that the millions of cars can be derived up to one month. It is always said that the plastic bags are going to the recycling process. Therefore, they cannot be the source of water pollution but only two of ten plastic bags go for recycling, but the others become the part of trash. It is the fact that it is too costly to recycle the plastic bag as they take hundreds of years to recycle. If not recycled then they break down into tiny particles and contaminate the soil and water and become the constituent of a food chain. The sometimes animal eats the broken plastic bottles and puts towards the death. In the marine water, shopping bags are caught in the sharp beaks of the sea birds that dive from air to water in search of food which results in their ultimate death.
Another source of water pollution is the agricultural wastes. Irrigation, soil depletion, and other modern techniques direct towards the additional environmental dangers. Agriculture is the directive and also nondirective source of water pollution. These chemicals are used for
the food production, and when foods are not properly cooked, they enter into our body. Furthermore, due to the increased level of nitrate in the food, results in reducing the oxygen level in the blood. If such cases manifested in children, then it results in the development of blue lady disease. Like other wasters, when agricultural runoff enters in the water then it cycle continues, and water pollution becomes increase with every coming day.
Chigor and colleagues researched the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River that showed that the water bodies have the significant public health dangers. When water animals are affected by polluted water, they further affect the human being when used in the form of food. The research stated that the establishment of passable hygienic substructure is the best source to prevent water from being contaminated.
Sibanda and his fellow researchers (
p. 6580) said that there are a lot of pathogenic bacteria in the river water that includes protozoa, viruses, and bacteria. The research explored that he faecal pollution is widespread in the river water particularly in the midstream and down streams. The presence of faecal indications in the river water states that pathogenic bacteria are also present in the river water that enhances the possibility of the presence of bacteria in the fresh water. The research has explored the new dimensions where we come across with the fresh water that has chances to be contaminated, which is the biggest threat towards the health.
According to Moe and his colleagues, drinking water in the Philippines is the indication and risk towards the diagnosis of diarrheal disease. The research stated that 1500 million people used the water supplies that are severely polluted. The rate of children who drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria E. coli on every 100 ml have more chances of the development of diarrheal diseases in their life as compared to the children who drink less contaminated water. In the developing countries, the polluted water is declining the water quality and makes it a transmission route for the development of diarrheal pathogens and the faecal contamination.
Bessong and colleagues stated that 1.1 billion people in the world have not any access toward the real water resources. Furthermore, 2.4 billion people do not have the basic sanitation system. Due to the contaminated water drinking, every year there are 4 billion cases of diarrhea that has been spread throughout the world’s developing countries. The research stated that the Limpopo province has the relatively higher prevalence rate 19 percent of human immune deficiency virus. Enteropathogens including Campylobacter, Plesiomonas shigelloides, and Shigella are the main reason behind the growing HIV. In South Africa, most of the portion of the patients who are diagnosed with HIV aids lived in rural areas where they have not the necessities of life and pure water to drink. It is not proper sanitation and supply system for the portable water. Most of the African rural residents use the contaminated water that has the devastating effects of diarrhea. The organisms that cause diarrhea may enter into their body through the continuous use of poor quality water that we may even not use for other purposes, but African is using it for the purpose to quench their thirst.
Oceans are the significant risks because of increasing water pollution. Oceans are compared to the human lungs, that if they do not properly work, they not only harm the fauna but also damage the flora. Similarly, an environment is everything that provides good health to human beings and keeps them in their proper health. When water is destroyed, it means it is reducing the quality of life. Therefore, the protection of water from being contaminated is the ultimate responsibility of every individual. The shortage of water in the enhancing rate of population is very problematic. Here the question arises that water pollution is as much increased throughout the world than how its causes with its long lasting effects could be minimized.
According to Barnett, Louise, and James, the ancient Pueblo people named earth as the Mother Creator of the all the things in the world. Therefore, it is necessary to save the entities that live on the land from the hazard; Water pollution.
There has been taken many initiatives nationally and internationally, but no any strategy can decline the water pollution. Ameliorating the water pollution is the collective effort of the individuals throughout the world. Here are few measures that can be proved to be very effective, if proper work has been on it.
Proper Sewage Treatment
The first solution to water pollution is the proper wastewater treatment as a way to reduce water pollution toward zero. It needs the development of newer and faster cleaning process. It is necessary to have sewage treatment plants with the additional system to eliminate the pathogens and nutrients from the water and soil. The continued maintenance is crucial regarding repairing or replacing infrastructure leakages. It is necessary to reduce the hydraulic overload so that the volume carriage capacity of sewage could be maximized. The cleaning of storm water that contains many contaminations can minimize the water pollution.
Green Agricultural Practices
The second solution towards the water pollution is the green agricultural practices such as crop rotation, planting perennial crops, installing silt fences and mulching can decline the water pollution. Commercial fertilizers and animal manure are washed up in the water that contains nutrients and phosphates. Farmers and industrialized should formulate nutrient management plans to limit the excessive nutrient application. Furthermore, Integrate Pest Management techniques should be implemented.
Industrial Waste Water Treatment
To control the water pollution caused by industries need well-designed treatment and water cooling systems. It should be the compulsion for every industry that they should have their plan that would explain the quality waste disposal protocols to eliminate the waste products from the country. These plans should save the water from becoming polluted through establishing strategies in which they can reduce the toxic component from the water discharge water so that it cannot become the cause of water pollution.
Anti-pollution Laws and Policies
Anti-pollution laws should be established at the local, national and international level with their proper implementation. Laws played the crucial role that proved to be very effective to keep in control the water pollution. The environmental protection policies should be established that may set up strategies to clean the polluted water. These laws should be directed to the industries, educational institutes, health care centers, hospitals, industries and the local councils.
Individual Efforts and Educative Campaigns
Lastly, individual and group efforts are worth using as they can educate the people about the hazardous impact of water pollution and let them know their fundamental responsibility to keep the environment clean. Awareness campaigns could be established with the help of media, institutes and the online agencies so that majority people can know about the current issue of water pollution and exert their effort to minimize it at the individual level.
To conclude, it is stated that water pollution is the primary hazard throughout the world especially in the developing countries. Water is the essential and valuable source on the earth, but sewage, oil, industrial and agricultural waste have polluted it and made it dangerous for human beings, animals, plants and water bodies. Irrigation, soil depletion, and other modern techniques direct towards the additional environmental dangers. Oceans are of the high risks because of increasing water pollution. Bessong and colleagues stated that due to the contaminated water drinking, every year there are 4 billion cases of diarrhea that has been spread throughout the world’s developing countries. Ameliorating the water pollution is the collective effort of the individuals throughout the world. Having newer and faster cleaning process is necessary. Green agricultural practices and integrated pest management techniques prove to be very effective to minimize the water pollution. The role of government is to establish the anti-pollution laws at the local, national and international level against the water pollution.
You are off to a great start here, and you have understood the assignment well. I especially like how you develop your ideas for your readers with clear examples and explanation. My biggest recommendation would be to develop the solution section of the essay a little more. Since you are already around 9 pages, you could just briefly discuss the first two solutions, but look more in depth at one or two of your best solutions. You need to argue for why it is the best solution. Also, show counterarguments, give concessions and refute the counterarguments.
Barnett, Louise K., and James L. Thorson, eds. Leslie Marmon Silko: A Collection of Critical
Essays. UNM Press, 2001.
Bessong, Pascal O., et al. “Spatial Distribution of Diarrhoea and Microbial Quality of Domestic
Water during an Outbreak of Diarrhoea in the Tshikuwi Community in Venda, South
Africa.” Journal of Health, Population & Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 5, Oct. 2009, pp. 652-659.
EBSCOhost, Web. 4 Aug. 2017.
Chigor, Vincent N, et al. “Studies on the Bacteriological Qualities of the Buffalo River and Three Source Water Dams along Its Course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 20, no. 6, June 2013, pp. 4125-4136. EBSCOhost, Web. 4 Aug. 2017.
Kostka, Joel E, et al. “Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 77, no. 22, Nov. 2011, pp. 7962-7974. EBSCOhost, Web. 5 Aug. 2017.
Leopold, Aldo. “The Land Ethic.” The Ecological Design and Planning Reader. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, 2014.
Moe, C L, et al. “Bacterial Indicators of Risk of Diarrhoeal Disease from Drinking-Water in the Philippines.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 69, no. 3, 1991, pp. 305-317. EBSCOhost, Web. 5 Aug. 2017.
Sibanda, Timothy, et al. “Seasonal and Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Faecal-Indicator Bacteria in Tyume River in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 185, no. 8, Aug. 2013, pp. 6579-6590. EBSCOhost, Web. 5 Aug. 2017.
Somerville, Chris. “Next Generation Biofuels.” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1652, no. 1, 15 Mar. 2015, pp. 44-50. EBSCOhost, Web. 5 Aug. 2017.