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Validity Generalization Essay

Research and Program Evaluation

Validity generalization is a branch of meta-analysis that refers to the presentation that the validities of various selection devices such as aptitude tests and abilities generalize across diverse situations (Wigdor1989). This implicates that it is unnecessary to conduct new validity study in every setting. Validity generalization applies in research when accurately estimating the mean and variance of true validities. It is also an essential approach in summarizing cumulative research. In addition, the results of validity generalization in research can be used to draw scientific conclusions between variables. Furthermore, the evidence of criterion-related validity attained from previous studies can be used to support the use of a test in a new situation during research (Schmidt& Hunter1977)

Open-ended Questions, Partially Open-ended and Closed-ended questions

These questions are used in research questionnaires to accurately measure the opinions, observations and behaviour of respondents (Gilner, Morgan & Leech 2009). Open-ended questions are objective and draw a full or meaningful answer based on the respondent’s own knowledge, experience or feelings (Worley 2015). They allow for different interpretations and variety of responses. Words used include how or why and phrases like ‘tell me about…’or ‘what is your opinion on…’ Partially open-ended questions are similar to open-ended questions but have pre-categorized answers. They have multiple choices including an alternative titled ‘other,’ which allows respondents to give their answers. Closed-ended questions, on the other hand, are subjective with a list of answers from which respondents must select. They include multiple choice questions, yes or no questions and true or false questions (Sudman & Bradburn1983).


Validity generalization implicates that the validity of selection devices generalize from a wide range of settings. It is a significant aspect in drawing scientific conclusions in research. Questionnaires used in research may use open-ended questions, partially open-ended questions, and closed-ended questions.


Gilner, J, Morgan G., Leech, N. (2009) Research methods: and integrated approach to design and analysis (2nd Edition), Routledge Taylor & Francis Group

Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1977). Development of a general solution to the problem of validity generalization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(5), 529.

Sudman, S., & Bradburn, N. M. (1983). Asking questions: a practical guide to questionnaire design.

Wigdor, A. K. (1989). Fairness in employment testing: Validity generalization, minority issues, and the General Aptitude Test Battery. National Academies.

Worley, P. (2015). Open thinking, closed questioning: Two kinds of open and closed question. Journal of Philosophy in Schools, 2(2).



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