US History to 1877 Essay
During seventeenth century, English did not permanently established in America. However, in the next century, they improved themselves and totally outpaced their opponents. The English invigorate the emigration and settled dozens of colonies and establishing them by send flocks of immigrants so that they can populate the land (Tomlins, 2001). There was a dramatic increase in the population of England during sixteenth century and all those people who were feeling deprived in the Britain and were facing poverty, the colonies seemed to become a welcoming a place for them.
Advocates of the colonization specially who were supporting colonization in the North America, hoped to make profit either by bringing raw resources to the colonies or by providing English goods a new market.
A different group of English immigrants traveled to the rocky soil and cold climate of the England due to their religious beliefs and religious motives. Most of the people, who crossed the Atlantic, were travelling with their children and families. People who were living in the colonies of Maryland and Virginia, were working on their tobacco fields, to make them more profitable while the people who were residing in the colonies of new England, started building towns and churches. Most of the historians write that major differences in the colonies of the New England and Chesapeake bay were the major reasons that separated the north and south of the United States.
The troubles in England started in 1640’s when civil war came into being in which supporters of the Church of England and King Charles I stood against the parliament and the supporters of the parliament. But in 1649, the parliament in and an unexpected move, executed the King Charles (Tomlins, 2001). As a result of which a turmoil started and made these regions developed with divergent culture.
Colonial Way of Life
Life in the starting of the colonial life was more difficult. The early you arrived in the world of colonial life, it was much harder for you to start an easy life. During 1600’s, immigrants who started their life in the colonies, were actually starting a new life (Benson & O’reilly,2009).
They were starting their life only with the things they had brought while they migrated. All the other stuff that they needed to spend their life was not an easy way to earn. If you ever read history or know any person who lived in the colonial time, you would come to know that majority to the people were farmers. Back in the colonial time, most of the people had a high risk to expose with different fatal diseases. At the time, among the colonial people, only a few were the one who had the possession of land while majority of the people were working either on the lands of greedy landlords or they were paying a huge amount of rent to the people who owned the land. In today’s world, people think that it is difficult to do farming but back in the colonial life, farming was a job that seemed to be a honorable job and people
who were doing farming were looked with great respect. Farmers at the colonial life, either they owned a small plot or they were working on a huge land for farming, they were making enough food for their families and in addition they were also making extra money by selling extra amount of grains to the other people through which they can buy other stuff needed for living. 90% of the people during colonial time, were farmers. For farming, they mostly relied on their own labor. During colonial time, slavery became legalized so any farmer who had a slave or two was considered very rich.
In july 1776, a declaration of independence was made under which the American colonies that became independent had to make their own government and their own standards. In 1777, Articles of Confederation were made under stated that there is no judicial branch, executive or central government.
But in 1787, it seemed that the country needs to have a central and strong government which can properly run this country. Because at that time, they don’t have any money in the banks, there was no treasury department and there was no one who can control the finances of the country. The country was going towards bankruptcy. They don’t had an operational army and were open on all fronts for the attack, In may 1787, the constitutional convention of the US gathered in Philadelphia (Edling, 2003). Delegates from all the states met there and elected George Washington to chair the convention. In this convention, they decided to look deeply at the articles of confederation to revise them and to make them stronger.
As the convention ended, a plan was introduced which is also known as the Virginia plan which said that there are three branches of government and there will a system of check and balance that will prevent any branch from abuse of power against the other. These plans came into debate and it lasts for many weeks. Many states were against this plan and many were in the favor. As this plan was giving representation to the states n the parliament as per their population (Edling, 2003). The debate against and for the bills of right continued and become a hot topic until September 1789, ta bill was submitted with a list of twelve amendments for ratification out of which other than first two, the remaining twelve become Bill of Rights.
War of 1812
The first decade of 1800’s brings so much instability in the world. All the European countries were fighting each other under the umbrella and coalition of Great Britain and France. US was not involved in this war, as the US wanted to remain neutralized during all this period but it was impossible for the US to remain neutral for a decade.
In the starting years i.e., from 1803 to 1806, Americans remained neutral and did not become alley with anyone but after Britain seizure of American citizens who were born in the United Kingdom into the British navy, US suffered impressiveness. An American president, Thomas Jefferson sent a delegate to negotiate the terms on the halt of American sailors from impressiveness but the Britishers didn’t show any concession.
Relations of the United States with the British were becoming weak day by day. US navy captured a UK navy ship as a revenge of the impress, men of the British born American sailors and fired it up (Dumbrell, 2006). As a result of which, British Minister to the United States, Thomas Foster, met with the American president, Madison and told him that due to the recent event British is not going to offer any compensation and is not going to end the war with the Americans.
As a result of which, Madison decided to start a war against Britain. On 17th June Congress passed a bill giving permission to start the war against Britain on which Madison signed the very next day. This war longed for 3 years.
Dumbrell, John. A special relationship: Anglo-American relations from the Cold War to Iraq. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.