Academic Master

Health Care

Type 1 diabetes

Author/Year Study Objectives Participants Intervention and Outcome Measures Results Study Limitations
Michelle M. Cloutier, James Wiley,

Zhu Wang,

Catherine Grant and Amy A. Gorin (2015)

To find the efficacy of the Early Childhood Obesity Program in increasing awareness about obesity and describe the need for behavioral change about obesity, changing children’s behavior by describing the importance of exercise, nutrition, and adverse effects of junk food Participants: 57 mothers with newborn babies were targeted by awareness teams. Out of these 57, 27 living in the neighborhood received only standard home visits, while 30 received both the Early Childhood Obesity Program and standard home visit Intervention: Sessions with mothers about awareness of adverse effects of obesity, guidance about breastfeeding, and self-assessment of family health status, and evaluated the results in wellness plan book.

Outcome: Assessment of target behaviors of children, SSB consumption, solid food introduction in diet, sleep time, and duration of breastfeeding

Results were obtained by analyzing data collected for the Kempe Family Scale and the association between team intervention and family behavior. The study is limited due to insufficient eligibility and the number of mothers in an intervention program.
James P. Boyle,

Amanda A. Honeycutt,

K.M. Venkat Narayan,

Thomas J. Hoerger,

Linda S. Geiss,

Hong Chen, and

  1. Theodore J. Thompson,
  2. (2001)
To project the number of diabetes patients in the US by the year 2050 Diabetes patients between 1980 and 1998 The research was meant to extrapolate the present number of 11 million diabetic patients in the year 2000 by the continued disease rate and population affected by it.


The study will be evaluated by the number of patients in the year 2050; the outcome can vary as various factors affect the extrapolated graph.

The study claims that the number of type 1 diabetes suffering patients will be 18 million, of which 37% are due to location changes, 27% due to the growth of population, and 36% to increasing chances of diabetes. The study is limited because various factors can change the results
P. Branscum M. Sharma


To analyze intervention outcomes in Hispanic children about childhood obesity and overweight issues The study is based on an analysis of 9 interventions Intervention: the intervention is a critical analysis of 5 randomized trials and four significant studies, evaluated by G*power of each intervention by calculation of Cohen’s f.


Tables showing results of overweight children, their BMI values, and Cohen’s f value

the results were based on the collective result of 9 interventions, and a suggestion is made to target future interventions by including the diet and physical activity of children in the study; there is a need for a more specific intervention strategy The results were limited to these interventions, and many factors that should have been involved in the studies were not included.




To study the effectiveness of glucose pumps and analyze what improvements are needed Intervention: the seminar is focused to discuss current methods of diabetes prevention, its pathology, and future outcomes. Results:

The study resulted in increasing people’s knowledge about the issue and they understood the need for the prevention of diabetes to avoid complications.

No limitations.
Jenni Lehtisalo, Lindström,

T. Ngandu,

M. Kivipelto,

S. Ahtiluoto,

P. Ilanne-Parikka,

S. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi,

J. G. Eriksson,

M. Uusitupa,

J. Tuomilehto,

J. Luchsinger


To investigate the relationship between physical activity and obesity in the participants of a diabetes prevention study in Finland, which is a successful intervention related to the diabetes topic 522 adults ages above 50, a total of 364 took part in the assessment Intervention:

The intervention was conducted in 5 research centers in Find Land, where their annual health report, diet, and exercise routine were analyzed in intervention. The evaluation will be done by analyzing the controlled diabetes cases after the intervention.

The study is expected to decrease diabetes complication cases by an average of 13 years time after the intervention. various factors like high BMI index and less exercise became a cause of worse cases of diabetes. The study is limited to participants from Finland.
Amy A Gorin,

James Wiley,

Christine McCauley Ohannessian,

Dominica Hernandez, Autherene Grant and Michelle M Cloutier


The purpose of the study is to promote awareness about obesity and the efficacy of the Steps to Growing Up Healthy program in the prevention of obesity 150 mothers and children of Latin and the Black community Intervention: The intervention focused on these two ethnic groups. The evaluation will be done based on the opinion of these groups on whether they benefited or not from the intervention, and the evaluation of the program will be done by Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, and Implementation criteria.


The twelve-month analysis shows a decreased BMI index in the children and changed concepts about obesity; children are assessed based on their height-to-weight ratio, exercise, and diet, whereas mothers are assessed based on their feeding practices.

The results will be calculated based on the behavior change of groups regarding obesity and the regression analysis of people’s attitudes toward increased BMI index. The study observes behavior in children of a very limited range and two groups that are in the minority.
Bruce A. Perkins,

David Z.I. Cherney, Helen Partridge1,

Nima Soleymanlou, Holly Tschirhart, Bernard Zinman,

Nora M. Fagan,

Stefan Kaspers,

Hans-Juergen Woerle,

Uli C. Broedl and

Odd-Erik Johansen


The purpose of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of SGLT2 in controlling hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes patients. 40 participants were given 25mg of the medicine daily Intervention: the study was meant to check the effectiveness of the SGLT2 compound and will be evaluated by decreased glycemia levels in patients.


The trial decreased the production of glycemia drastically and thus can be concluded as effective for the control of diabetes.

The glucose level decreased from 9 to 7 with up to 4 mmol/L tolerance in all patients. However, the urinary excretion of glucose decreased by 220 grams/day. No limitations
Susanne Famulla,

Ulrike Hövelmann,

Annelie Fischer,

Hans-Veit Coester,

Lidia Hermanski,

Matthias Kaltheuner,

Lars Kaltheuner,

Lutz Heinemann,

Tim Heise and

Laurence Hirsch


The objective of this study is to find the effect of lipohypertrophy and its impact on insulin absorption. Thirteen patients are suffering from type 1 diabetes. Intervention:

The study was performed by injecting low dosages of LHT in patients; the evaluation will be done by measuring insulin levels in patients.


This study successfully proved decreased hyperglycemia, and LHT is found to be effective as a control agent.


The level of insulin decreased in the body after LHT injection, which proved the effectiveness of the compound.

The study has a small sample size of 13 patients. and the repeated control of insulin by clamp and MMTT.
Dr Steven A Grover,

Mohammed Kaouache,

Philip Rempel,

Lawrence Joseph,

Martin Dawes,

David C W Lau,



To develop a disease simulation model to estimate the annual risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease in diabetes patients 3992 non-Hispanic people. Intervention:

The study is aimed to calculate the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality rate.

Outcome: the study proved useful in the debate between diabetes and its effects on patients leading to cardiovascular diseases.

Excess BMI index is related to an increased rate of mortality and cardiovascular problems. Hispanic population only
Rodica Pop-Busui, Andrew J.M. Boulton, Eva L. Feldman,

Vera Bril,

Roy Freeman,

Rayaz A. Malik,

Jay M. Sosenko and

Dan Ziegler


To analyze neuropathic problems related to type 1 diabetes and measure its severity level Japanese patients who are early diagnosed with type 1 diabetes The research analyzes autonomic and cardiovascular neuropathy and can be evaluated by calculating data related to neuropathic complexities in diabetic patients



The set of studies showed the relationship between diabetes and neuropathic problems.

No Limitations


Atkinson, Mark A., George S. Eisenbarth, and Aaron W. Michels. “Type 1 diabetes.” The Lancet 383.9911 (2014): 69-82.

Boyle, James P., et al. “Projection of diabetes burden through 2050: impact of changing demography and disease prevalence in the US.” Diabetes care 24.11 (2001): 1936-1940.

Branscum, P., and M. W. Sharma. “A systematic analysis of childhood obesity prevention interventions targeting Hispanic children: lessons learned from the previous decade.” Obesity Reviews 12.5 (2011).

Cloutier, Michelle M. et al. “The Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO): An Ecologically-Based Intervention Delivered By Home Visitors For Newborns And Their Mothers.” BMC Public Health, vol 15, no. 1, 2015, Springer Nature, doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1897-9.

Famulla, Susanne, et al. “Insulin injection into lipohypertrophic tissue: blunted and more variable insulin absorption and action and impaired postprandial glucose control.” Diabetes Care 39.9 (2016): 1486-1492.

Gorin, Amy A et al. “Steps To Growing Up Healthy: A Pediatric Primary Care Based Obesity Prevention Program For Young Children.” BMC Public Health, vol 14, no. 1, 2014, Springer Nature, doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-72.

Grover, Steven A., et al. “Years of life lost and healthy life-years lost from diabetes and cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese people: a modelling study.” The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 3.2 (2015): 114-122.

Lehtisalo, Jenni, et al. “Association of long-term dietary fat intake, exercise, and weight with later cognitive function in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.” The journal of nutrition, health & aging 20.2 (2016): 146-154.

Perkins, Bruce A., et al. “Sodium-glucose cotransporter two inhibition and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes: results of an 8-week open-label proof-of-concept trial.” Diabetes care 37.5 (2014): 1480-1483.

Pop-Busui, Rodica, et al. “Diabetic neuropathy: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association.” Diabetes care 40.1 (2017): 136-154.



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