Treatment Model Comparison
There are several treatment models which have been used to solve the problems of clients. Each treatment model has a different capacity and is used for different issues. However, there are some treatment models which can be used for specific issues such as food disorders or substance use disorders to general behavioral issues. Most of the treatment takes on the holistic approach and is used for the client to redeem their self and self-awareness. This paper aims to explore two treatment models which are cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Adlerian therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a therapy widely used by patients to help manage their issues and problems by the way people think and behave. This therapy is basically a psycho-social intervention used for the improvement of the mental health of people. Initially, the therapy was mainly used for people who have eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa but now the array of the treatment has expanded (Meichenbaum, Carlson, & Kjos, 2007). The treatment is now widely used for patients who have anxiety, depression, social disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anger problems, and other issues. The therapy is also known as talk therapy because the practitioners discuss with their patients and help them overcome dysfunctional emotions and behaviors. The basic concept of the therapy is that your physical reaction or response is linked with your cognition. It means that your feelings and thoughts are connected with your physical actions and response.
Adlerian Therapy is an approach using the improvement in the mental health of any individual through the educational system. The theory is a system theory that is holistic, and cognitive, and focuses on the interaction between people and the relationship between partners (Carlson & Sperry, 2006). The focus of the therapy is on the development of the individuals by helping them comprehend their thoughts, emotions, and behavior which has an impact on their daily life. According to Adlerian therapy, people are social being and all their behaviors and issues are based on the social context and social situations (Carlson & Sperry, 2006). The primary idea of the theory was based on the thought that successful relationships within communities need mutual respect within families.
History of therapies:
Alfred Adler the renowned philosopher and psychotherapist who lived from the year 1870 to the year 1937 first proposed the Adler Therapy. The therapy is also known as individual therapy (Carlson & Sperry, 2006). He stresses the idea that it is essential to understand the individuals within their social context and their living environment. Alfred pioneered the holistic approach and focused on the individual person’s ability to adapt to the concept of inferiority (Carlson & Slavik, 2013).
On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy was first proposed by psychiatrist Dr. Aaron T. Beck in 1960 (Robertson, 2010). The therapy has been proven effective for treating several mental health issues and the focus is on the individual basically. The focus of this therapy is on the current problems and the interpretations instead of the past experience. The therapy proposes practical ways to improve the mental health of the patients and solve the issues they face in their daily life (Robertson, 2010)
Strengths of the therapy:
Each of the treatment models has its strengths which make it better to treat the issues of the people.
Adlerian Therapy is basically a significant contribution to the field of psychology and behavioral theories. The therapy is different from the other therapies because it focuses on the interaction of the individual within society. His approach is centered on the belief, lifestyles and environmental situations of the people (Louis J. Bevilacqua & Frank M. Dattilio, 2007).
Another important strength of the theory is that the therapy is based on positive encouragement and empowerment of the individuals. Also, the theory is flexible as the idea of inferiority complex and other issues can be explored through various means such as art, play, and talk therapies (Gurman, 2014). The therapy has the potential to provide counseling and services to all age groups and gender.
Whereas, cognitive behavioral therapy also possess several strength for patients who are having stress and anxiety as well as food disorders. The therapy can be for a short period of time as compared to the other talk therapies (Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006). The therapy is structured and has several goals which are set by the patients to achieve. The main aim of the therapy is to gain knowledge about the issues and make changes in the daily lifestyle. The therapist helps devised the strategies which can be used even after the treatment is finished (Butler et al., 2006).
Limitation of the therapies:
Even though the therapies are of great importance and can be beneficial at several levels but there are several limitations to these therapies.
Adlerian therapy has focused on early childhood experiences and interpretations but at times because of harsh memories client might not want to explore those memories again (Watts, 2013). Also in this therapy, there can be difficulties in building trustworthy relations and the building of the relationship might take more time than usual. Some researchers and counselors view the therapy are excessively optimistic about human nature and the impact of birth disorder (Watts & Shulman, 2003).
Whereas, one of the main limitations of cognitive behavioral therapy is commitment. Several people do not commit to attending all the sessions of the therapy therefore the results are not as expected. Also, the primary focus is the individual behavior not the environmental context of the individual which makes it weak to understand the impact of other factors which might affect the behavior of the individuals (Beck, 2011). The therapy is basically self-help with the motivation of a therapist and the individuals might not have the ability or the will to change themselves (Craske, 2010).
The perspective of human conditions:
Adlerian therapy mainly provided the notion that experiences of today are based on the interpretations of the experiences we have had since childhood. According to this theory, more than experience the interpretation of those experiences has more impact on everyday life. People are in need of other people to survive in the community and we need to interact and communicate to live within the community. The three necessary aspects of the therapy which are important to tasks of life are love-intimacy, work, and friendships (Akdoğan, 2017). People are more content when all these necessities of life are completed. The balance of these elements makes the person happy, his/her perception positive and the overall environment of the community healthy and peaceful. Therapy is one of the psychosocial and education approaches which is based on the dedication of individuals towards success, their relationship with other people, and their sense of contribution to society (Watts, 2013). The therapy is useful for all kinds of people regardless of age and gender as well as for all kinds of relationships such as single, married, couples, and single parents.
Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on individuals and their negative thoughts and emotions. This treatment model sees the individuals as the center and their thoughts related to their perceptions. For example, individuals who have food disorders such as anorexia nervosa will have issues with their weight and body image so this therapy helps these individuals to accept themself and reduce their maladaptive thoughts of the clients (Beck, 2011). According to this therapy, the connection between thought, feeling, and self is deeper and this connection leads to the reaction or behavior of the individuals. Therapists tend to be empathetic about the situation of the person and keep their biases aside (Beck, 2011). The therapy is useful for individuals at all levels regardless of their age and gender.
Stages of the therapies:
Stages of Adlerian Therapy process:
The therapy has four fundamental stages which the practitioner usually uses while treating their patients. The first stage is engagement in which through a discussion of a general talk, the practitioner builds a cordial and trustworthy relationship with the client. The trust will help the client to open up and help the counselor understand the behavior, thoughts, and past experience of a person (Kottman & Meany-Walen, 2016). The second stage of the counseling process is the assessment of the client. In this stage, the counselor tends to get an insight into the client’s issue by exploring the early childhood experiences, family history, and social context of the person. After the proper assessment, the treatment plan will be devised by the counselor which will be based on the results of the assessment. Also, the client will be provided with new ways to look at things and perceptions in a different way. This therapy will provide the client with a new outlook on his behavior and his perceptions. It will also enhance the interaction of the client within the community and with the family members.
Stage of Cognitive behavioral therapy process:
The process of treatment for cognitive behavioral therapy is similar to Adlerian therapy. The first phase of the therapy is a behavioral and trust-building phase. In this phase, the psychologist work with the patient to build a trustworthy relationship (Fairburn, Cooper, & Shafran, 2003). After the relationship has been built, the psychologist attempt to assess the issue, the reason behind and other concerns of the client. The second stage of the process is known as the restructuring phase in which the therapist tries to trigger the patient and raise awareness about their behavior as probing in this phase will pose a challenge to the logic of the patient for the behavior (Meichenbaum et al., 2007). The therapist will help the patient to set a goal for the treatment and devise strategies according to the goals.
Preference of the treatment model:
Both therapies are useful for different individuals based on the issue but Adlerian therapy is preferred over cognitive behavioral therapy because individuals live in a society and everything is based on the interaction within the society. While understanding the problem of the individuals it is essential to understand the contexts and other factors which play a role in that behavior.
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