Academic Master


Theories of Social Violence Question Answers

Question # 1:


Violence is a state or a pattern in which an individual expresses a particular behavior with the physical force intended to hurt other people or person. Violence includes the intention to hurt someone, damage something, or kill someone as well. Non-violent behavior is the pattern in which one accepts the oppression by someone else, or it is an armed struggle against the oppression. According to the concept of Gandhi, non-violent behavior is the one in which one avoids being violent in severe circumstances with a positive mind and wins the heart of opponents (“BBC – Ethics – War: Non-violence,” 2018). Defining violence is difficult due to its unpredictable occurrences, such as bullying, abuse, harsh words, wrong acts (Alvarez & Bachman, 2017), and many more. It depends on one’s nerves that how one can deal with the issues that lead him to the act of violence. For example, in one scenario, a child who is black faces bullying consistently during school time by his white mates. This could lead to the act of violence when the acceptance level of the child will end and results in hurting the white mates. Another example includes the usage of firearm violence which is popular in the United States (Monuteaux, Lee, Hemenway, Mannix & Fleegler, 2018). One person who consecutively faced abuse at an office, and was not able to complain about it to their employers, leads him to distress and tension scenarios. Moreover, at the same time, the person is facing personal issues that are provoking him to a suicide attempt, and one day was bursting with distress, he attempted suicide. In this example, one person’s violence leads him to death. In both examples, people are led towards the act of violence, and the severity of violence leads one person away from nonviolent behavior.

Question # 2:


Robert Merton provided his arguments for strain theory. In his viewpoint, society makes a culture of a specific goal similar to the American dream, and it could be any other. In this way, members of the society, work within the defined culture of the community and also try to work the achievement of certain defined goals (“Merton’s Strain Theory: Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript |,” 2018). According to this theory, if any society is not able to provide better education, living condition, or job opportunities, then it might lead to distress and stress for the people. The stress results in five factors including conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. In the general strain theory by Agnew, the concept of stress is the same, but it leads to the generation of negative emotions such as depression, tension, anger, or any other violent behavior. These emotions lead a person towards acts of crime (Brezina, 2017). Prison violence occurred in three different scenarios, including the deprivation model, importation model, and coping model. These all models are linked with the GST theory (Blevins, Johnson Listwan, Cullen & Lero Jonson, 2010). It provides a complete framework that explains the complete understanding of misconduct and prison violence. The GST theory best explains the violent behavior and provides the reasons that led to the violence towards the crimes.

Question # 3:


Strain theories are helpful to determine the reasons behind violent acts. Many times the needs that are not fulfilled are blocked or stopped, and similarly, the desires that are not completed leaded a person to act in violence and criminal activities (Alvarez & Bachman, 2017). Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld provided a theory named the anomie theory of crime. In this theory, the social behavior of the societal members is related to their acts of crime. The authors provided the fact that in the US society the violence is high to the presence of the American dream in which people strive to work hard and when they failed to achieve the goals they consider that they should achieve their dreams by committing crimes. This theory targeted the stress factors with the economic factors of the people. Later this theory, was updated with the new strain theory presented by Agnew and named as general strain theory. In this theory, the author focused on several factors other than the economic factors that lead one person to the act of violence and crime. Three main factors are the ones that could raise the stress and strain level in a person. It includes the hindrances that occur in the ways to achieve a goal, a person is threatened by something, or something unwanted occurred or imposed on an individual that does not require by the individual (Alvarez & Bachman, 2017). So, in my opinion, the developed form of anomie theory, the GST theory best defines any act of violent behavior. It also includes the deprivation model, the importation model, and the coping model that shows a complete understating of prison violence and misconduct (Blevins, Johnson Listwan, Cullen & Lero Jonson, 2010). For example, one person who is facing financial issues, and has to support his six children, will face a state of depression. His store manager fired him for a small mistake, and there is no other way to find a job instantly. He needs to provide food to his children. Due to stress and a state of depression he is forced to steal the purse of woman and buy food for his children with the money. The stress led him to a violent act and later committed a crime.

Question # 4:


Many people like to watch violent TV shows, and in the modern world today, children are the ones who like to play violent video games. Children aged between 8 to 18 play violent video games for 1.2 to 7.5 hours per week (Alvarez & Bachman, 2017). Children are more fascinated by violent video games as compared to physical sports. Children, who are aged between 8 to 18 are going through their age of learning. Their cognitive skills develop during age, and they are more enthusiastic about the learning environment. When children enjoy violent games, then it means that they are promoting their behavior in violent ways. For example, a child who likes to play a violent video game and like one game most in which one person hurts several ones and accomplishes a mission. This will develop the mentality of the child that in real life, it could be possible to hurt other people with the same methods that were used in the video game. The children who enjoy playing these games are the ones who became aggressive as compared to the children who do not like to play video games. Aggressive behavior emerges through the use of violent video games, and many times leads to the emergence of violent behavior of children. The children who learn through the environment learn to hurt someone, act aggressively, and act violently through the consistent usage of video games. This could lead to disastrous measures and circumstances in which the violence will lead the children towards the occurrence of crimes.

Question # 5:


The war on drugs is not new in the United States, and the country is struggling for many years on this issue. The war on drugs in the United States has failed, and it is time for a new strategy based on regulation. It’s been several decades since the United States is busy dealing with the issues and problems of drugs. In the country, there is a huge rate of drug users and drug addicts who are consistent users of drugs. The war against drugs showed no satisfactory results and every year tens of thousands of people die due to the overdose of drugs. The on-crime policies are implemented in the country to decrease the rate of drug users. The black markets of drugs in Mexico become the reason of numerous people dies on an annual basis which is an explicit representation of the failure of the government against the drugs measures. The rate of drug users does not have much declined for several years despite the fact that the government put numerous efforts to deal with the issues of war. The goal of the War on Drugs was to reduce drug usage and create tougher laws on not only suppliers but those using. Even though convictions of drug crimes have increased and there have been countless task forces to end large-scale drug rings, we are no closer to a solution than we were in the beginning. The United States has spent billions of dollars to eradicate the drug problem yet every day our streets and cities are filled with drug dealers and addicts. Over the years we have made some great strides in this war, but it’s a losing battle because even when you catch one drug supplier, another one pops in their place reaping the rewards from the competition. Our local and federal law enforcement agencies are also tainted as some within the ranks accept bribes and get kickbacks from major drug dealers to stay off their tails.


Alvarez, A., & Bachman, R. (2017). Violence (3rd ed.). The United States of America: Library of Congress Catalog.

BBC – Ethics – War: Non-violence. (2018). Retrieved 30 March 2018, from

Blevins, K., Johnson Listwan, S., Cullen, F., & Lero Jonson, C. (2010). A General Strain Theory of Prison Violence and Misconduct: An Integrated Model of Inmate Behavior. Journal Of Contemporary Criminal Justice26(2), 148-166.

Bouffard, L., & Piquero, N. (2008). Defiance Theory and Life Course Explanations of Persistent Offending. Crime & Delinquency56(2), 227-252.

Brezina, T. (2017). General Strain Theory. Oxford Research Encyclopedia Of Criminology And Criminal Justice.

Fox, J., & DeLateur, M. (2013). Mass Shootings in America. Homicide Studies18(1), 125-145.

Fox, K., & Allen, T. (2013). Examining the Instrumental–Expressive Continuum of Homicides. Homicide Studies18(3), 298-317.

General Strain Theory: Definition & Examples | (2018). Retrieved 30 March 2018, from

Gius, M. (2013). An examination of the effects of concealed weapons laws and assault weapons bans on state-level murder rates. Applied Economics Letters21(4), 265-267.

Jouriles, E., & McDonald, R. (2014). Intimate Partner Violence, Coercive Control, and Child Adjustment Problems. Journal Of Interpersonal Violence30(3), 459-474.

Kelley, K., & Gruenewald, J. (2014). Accomplishing Masculinity through Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Homicide. Men And Masculinities18(1), 3-29.×14551204

Last, S., & Fritzon, K. (2005). Investigating the nature of expressiveness in stranger, acquaintance and intrafamilial homicides. Journal Of Investigative Psychology And Offender Profiling2(3), 179-193.

LoBue, V. (2018). Violent Media and Aggressive Behavior in ChildrenPsychology Today. Retrieved 30 March 2018, from

media and violence. (2018). Retrieved 30 March 2018, from

Merton’s Strain Theory: Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript | (2018). Retrieved 30 March 2018, from

Monuteaux, M., Lee, L., Hemenway, D., Mannix, R., & Fleegler, E. (2018). Firearm Ownership and Violent Crime in the U.S.. Retrieved 30 March 2018, from

Sandberg, S., Tutenges, S., & Copes, H. (2015). Stories of Violence: A Narrative Criminological Study of Ambiguity. British Journal Of Criminology55(6), 1168-1186.

True, J. (2016). Gendered violence in natural disasters: Learning from New Orleans, Haiti and Christchurch. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work25(2), 78.

Walby, S., Towers, J., & Francis, B. (2015). Is Violent Crime Increasing or Decreasing? a New Methodology to Measure Repeat Attacks Making Visible the Significance of Gender and Domestic Relations. British Journal Of Criminology56(6), 1203-1234.

Youngs, D., Ioannou, M., & Eagles, J. (2014). Expressive and Instrumental Offending. International Journal Of Offender Therapy And Comparative Criminology60(4), 397-422.×14557478



Calculate Your Order

Standard price





Pop-up Message