The slave trade in the North was the monopoly of the Royal Company, but this monopoly was liquidated and the colonies obtained the right to independently engage in the slave trade. The trade-in slaves took on an even broader scale, Negroes were caught, bought, exchanged goods, they were loaded into fetid ship holds, and carried to America. Slaves mass died in barracks of trading stations and during transportation. But although there were often five dead on the road to one of the surviving Negroes-suffocated from lack of air, dead from illness, crazy, or simply thrown into the sea, preferring death to slavery-the slave traders received fabulous profits: the demand for Negroes was so great, and the slaves were so cheap and so quickly paid for themselves. The Negroes were so cheap that it was more profitable for planters to torment a slave in a short period of time in an unbearable job than to exploit him longer, but more circumspectly. The average life span of a slave on plantations in some areas of the South did not exceed six-seven years.
- Brutalities of slave life
Despite the ban on the importation of slaves in 1808, the slave trade did not stop. It existed in a latent form until the official liberation of Negroes during the Civil War of 1861-1865. Negroes were now smuggled, which further increased the death rate during transportation. It is estimated that from 1808 to 1860, about half a million slaves were smuggled into the United States. The subject of trade was, in addition, blacks, especially “cultivated” for sale in some of the slave states of the South (especially in South Carolina and Virginia).
Negro slaves expressed their protest in other forms, such as spoiling tools, killing overseers and masters, suicide, escapes, etc. The flight required great courage and courage from the Negro, for if a runaway slave was caught, his ears were cut off, and sometimes, if he provided armed resistance and hands, or branded him with a red-hot iron. Nevertheless, negroes – men, women, and even children – fled to the forests, to the Indians, to the North, where by the end of the XVIII century. slavery was abolished (see below). According to G. Epteker, no less than 60 thousand fugitives reached the northern states in the period from 1830 to 1860. The number of Negroes killed on the road or captured and executed by slave owners will never be known.
Especially the slave runs from the plantations during the revolution of 1774-1783 became especially massive. Negroes played an important role in the struggle of the American colonies against English rule. George Washington, for a long time hesitant to recruit Negroes into the soldiers, 1776 was forced to resort to this measure in view of the offensive of the British and the general plight in the country. According to some estimates, there were at least 5,000 Negroes in the army of Washington, many of whom distinguished themselves in the struggle: Crisp Attax, Peter Salem, Austin Debney, James Armistead, Deborah Gennett, etc. Negro veterans released for military services from the Rao- increased the number of free Negroes in the North and South. But the revolution of 1774-1783. did not solve the question of slavery and its abolition. The new constitution essentially proceeded from the recognition of slavery, as can be seen from a number of its articles. Under the pressure of slave owners in 1793, a nationwide law on runaway slaves was adopted. The remaining questions about slavery were transferred to the discretion of individual states. However, during the revolution and shortly thereafter, slavery was abolished in the northern and northwestern states.
- Working conditions
The outstanding abolitionist leaders were William Lloyd Harrison and Frederick Douglas. Garrison (1805-1879) is credited with the creation in 1833 in Philadelphia of the American Society for the Struggle against Slavery and a whole network of abolitionist societies, the number of which in the 50s of the XIX century. more than 2 thousand. The American Society for Combating Slavery united both white abolitionists and free Negroes. The declaration of the society adopted at the congress in Philadelphia in December 1833 said that slavery, in which Americans keep their fellow citizens, is contrary to “the principles of natural justice, the republican form of government and the Christian religion, undermines the welfare of the country and threatens peace, union, and freedom states “.
Further, a demand was demanded the immediate release of Negroes, without resettlement to Africa, by “convincing fellow citizens with arguments directed towards their reason and conscience”. Douglas (1817-1895), the famous leader of the Negro people, was vice-president of the Society for the Struggle against Slavery. His mother is a Negro slave, his father is white; Douglas himself, his brothers, and sisters were slaves. In 1838, Douglas fled to the North and became a remarkable public figure – a fighter for his people, for his political organization, and a brilliant orator and writer. In 1838, Douglas published the most popular pre-Civil War newspaper “North Star” (“North Star”), known subsequently as “Frederick Douglass’ paper.”
The United States’ entry into the stage of imperialism was marked by an intensification of reaction in all areas of life. Anti-Negro demonstrations and pogroms also became more frequent. The lynchings curve went up sharply. At the same time, pogromists from literature (Dixon, Page, etc.), whose works contained direct calls for reprisal against the Negroes, act. Again, the tested ideological weapons of the slave-owners were put into practice – the “theory” of the superiority of the white race. The reactionary forces of capitalism have found all new forms of enslavement of the Negro population, viewing it as a source of superprofits. By 1915 the Ku Klux Klan was reorganized and turned into a weapon of the struggle between big capital and monopolies against the Communists, the trade union movement, the national liberation movement of the Negroes, and other progressive forces of America.
- Sexual abuse
Although generally recognized feminist theorists stand on positions critical of military prostitution, among them there are disagreements as to which of the extreme forms of sexual exploitation are necessary or possible to attribute to the daily routine of military prostitution. In the feminist bibliography, there is a tendency to classify the ways in which the army organizes sexual access to women for soldiers; this classification is based on the degree of harm to women. So, the most condemned and rejected is the so-called “sexual slavery”. Some theorists make a distinction between “sexual slavery” and prostitution, as in the case of “sexual slavery”, women are openly abducted, coerced or deceived, or not paid, or subjected to physical torture that leads to death, as happened in Bosnia with women who were considered mature sexual material. Ustiny Dolgopol argues that the violence committed against “women for military comfort” can not be considered prostitution, but should be considered rape (Dolgopol, 1996). Many activists also believe that the system of “women for military comfort”, which the government of Japan persistently tries to present as a system of voluntary prostitution not organized with the help of the state, and therefore not requiring compensation for victims, is a system of sexual slavery and rape (Lys, 2007) . In this chapter, I will demonstrate that at present various forms of military prostitution continue to exist and are not going to disappear.
- No way of escape
Thus, the slave system gave rise to the opposition between physical and mental labor, the gap between them. The exploitation of slaves by the slaveholders constitutes the main feature of the production relations of the slave society. At the same time, the slave-owning mode of production in the North had its own peculiarities. In the North, the subsistence economy prevailed even more than in the ancient world. Here slave labor was widely used in state farms, farms of large slaveholders, and temples. In the slave-owning North forms of ownership of land were widespread. The existence of these forms of ownership was associated with a system of agriculture based on irrigation. Irrigated agriculture in the river valleys of the East required thirty huge labor costs for the construction of dams, canals, reservoirs, and draining swamps. All this necessitated the centralization of the construction and use of irrigation systems on a large scale. “Agriculture here is built primarily on artificial irrigation, and this irrigation is already a matter for the community, the region, or the central government. With the development of slavery, communal lands were concentrated in the hands of the state. The supreme owner of the land was the tsar, who had unlimited power.
By concentrating in his own hands on the ownership of land, the state of the slaveowners. Lent the peasants enormous taxes, compelled them to perform various kinds of duties, thereby placing the peasants in slavish dependence. The peasants remained members of the community. But when the land was concentrated in the hands of the slave-owning state, the community was the firm foundation of eastern despotism, that is, the unlimited autocratic power of the despotic monarch. The priestly aristocracy played a huge role in the slave-owning North. Vast farms belonging to the churches were conducted based on slave labor.
Under the slave system in the North, the slaveowners spent most of the slave labor and its product unproductively: to satisfy personal whims, to form treasures, to build military fortifications and the army, to build and maintain luxurious palaces and temples. The unproductive expenditure of huge amounts of labor is evidenced, in particular, the North has presented that. Only a small part of slave labor and its product was spent on further expansion of production, which, therefore, developed extremely “slowly. The devastating wars led to the destruction of the productive forces, the extermination of the vast masses of civilians, and the destruction of the culture of entire states.
Musher, Sharon Ann. “Contesting ‘The Way the Almighty Wants It’: Crafting Memories of ExSlaves in the Slave Narrative Collection.” American Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 1, 2001, pp. 1–31. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/30041871.
IsfahaniHammond, Alexandra. “The Masters and the slaves [electronic resource] : Plantation Relations and Mestizaje in American Imageries.SpringerLink. Miracosta College Library Catalong. 6 March 2018.
LUCK, CHAD. “Anxieties of Ownership: Debt, Entitlement, and the Plantation Romance.” The Body of Property: Antebellum American Fiction and the Phenomenology of Possession, Fordham University, 2014, pp. 138–187. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x093g.7.
HASLAM, JASON. “‘Cast of Characters’: Problems of Identity and Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.” Fitting Sentences: Identity in Nineteenth and TwentiethCentury Prison Narratives, University of Toronto Press, Toronto; Buffalo; London, 2005, pp. 49–84. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/9781442674943.6.
The African American Odyssey. Vol. 1. Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold.