Academic Master



Addiction and substance abuse is a complex phenomenon which is contributed by the interaction of factors that make individuals seek out, use and eventually abuse drugs. In this regards, there are two biological factors contributing to substance misuse of marijuana by Josh; they include, the effect of the marijuana on the individual, and subsequently, the biological status of Josh. The former is acute-related mechanism of action of marijuana abuse on the brain and effects on the long-term after chronic exposure.

In comparative, the latter relates to the biological constitution and the existence of characteristics which are inherited and affects the individual’s response to the substance of abuse. The biology of substance misuse forms the basis of explaining the concept dependence by eliminating the misperception that substance misuse and possible addiction is a moral problem or a choice. Dependence is associated with prolonged usage of a drug in which the brain neurons adapt to the presence of the drug and becomes a requirement for normal functioning of the brain cells.

As indicated by krohn (2013), heredity influences pathological and normal use of drugs such as marijuana and alcohol. This is because genetic factors contribute to preferences of these drugs, reinforce the actions of the drugs as well as physical dependence of the drug. In this context, Sam, Lucy and Josh have a genetic predisposition of substance since all have vulnerabilities to addictive properties. The three members are all associated with substance abuse especially alcohol and this confirms the existence of genetic influence on the abuse of alcohol and other substance.

Lifespan development is defined as the cognitive eg reasoning and motivation, neurobiological e.g aging and maturation, micro-social e.g peer group and family, macro-social events eg socio-cultural and mass media that happen across someone’s life cycle. The inte-relationship of these stages affects the reasons that lead to an individual start or continue substance misuse and their behaviors. The developmental stages from child to adulthood and especially the formal operational stage is accompanied with growth of intellectual levels, better understanding of logical principles, ability to assume different roles and the improvement of the capability of thinking critically, generalizing and testing hypothesis. In this stage, the behaviors of the users start to change due to the ability to have a different perception of reasoning patterns.


Krohn, E. (2013). Recovering health through cultural traditions. Fourth World Journal12(1), 93.



Calculate Your Order

Standard price





Pop-up Message