Academic Master

Health Care, Medical

Stigma about depression and help-seeking attitudes: gender differences among young adults

There are two main types of insults in mental illness, that is, “public stigma” and “self-stigma”. The rest of the public is of the opinion that some people mean that mental health is not something in society. Victims of violence can cause prejudice and negative feelings toward themselves. The result of this process is the “self-stigma”. Stigma was an important prerequisite for depression and other mental illnesses. Gender and race are associated with blasphemy. Among depressed patients, male and American Americans have a higher level of self-esteem than women and the Caucasus. Violent and immoral fraud affects the desire to seek help from both sexes and races. Americans show little mental attitude to mental health than the Caucasus. Religious beliefs help to cope with mental illnesses. Some prejudices about mental illness are spreading around the world. The structure shows that synchronization with ordinary male terms (“boys cry”) leads to behavior that depressive men show, who seem to be forced to deal with their illness without the help of experts. This discovery suggests that exposing people’s feelings about their stress and other mental health problems can be the most effective way to change the attitudes of those in need, rather than trying to directly change these relationships. In addition, the impact of gender-based sexual violence on the loss of care can be overcome when people with depression feel that the real relationship leading to cooperation has been developed by professional specialists.
Social disgrace is the highest dissatisfaction of the individual or collections in relation to various aspects of the individuality of the individual from different people in the general community. Social disasters can be seen as the result of mental disorders, as well as various attributes, such as skin fraud, and racial and sexual infections.
There are two main types of shame in immoral behavior, that is, “open disgrace” and “shame.”
1) people are generally criticized for the fact that others are physically ill with the complexity of the community. The thought of non-psychological behavior in other cases causes criticism, popularity, and occupation of the homes and people of patients in their group, in some cases including medical professionals.
Data from open changes, including people with one background or history, show that family reports and friends have influenced them to hear their name, judge, transfer, and exclude them.
2) Affected people can unite to select material and make undesirable feelings towards them. The result of this process is embarrassing. Morality is manifested by self-esteem and melancholy inflation. Patients are ashamed and embarrassed, experiencing psychological problems. These problems prevent social connections and debilitating performance associated with a name. At a time when the patient manifests himself as a person in need of treatment, this can continue to reduce his self-confidence, which makes the search for help. Thus, there are two stigmatized declines, that is, some of the most associated with working with unemployed behavior, while others are associated with seeking treatment. Temporary research suggests that the two components are connected, but free.
Shame was a key factor in fears, fever, liver disorders, bipolar disorders, and depression disorders. Self-indulgence is associated with immorality in treatment and adherence to treatment.
Behavior associated with the provision of care is affected by sexual orientation. One of the main things that children learn is that “young people are crying”. Impact on communities leads to the fact that new people and young women see the need for help. Part of the social dialogue in the development of rehabilitation and rehabilitation of men. Sexual harassment, self-esteem, physical, financial, long-term, and cunning profit gave way to the achievement and maintenance of the status of respected adult life. Respect for a person, as defined by many Western social orders, is characterized by constant stress, confidence, and undesirable help. This part of the floor has been changed before the system in everyday life and has recently been reunited, for example, military administration, it is difficult to change. However, as mentioned above, sexual influence is part of the protection of care in many cases inadequate, without any embarrassment imposed by someone else, because people with mental illness, hoping to be resident or “weak,” are waiting for treatment. The pride in seeking help is more evident for men than for women. Self-control can be very understood when communication is open with embarrassment or parts of the sexual orientation of humanity.
Aversion is associated with embarrassment and is more than offensive. Patients believe that “people who are weak do not have strength.” If I’m not discouraged, I’m strong. ” Shyness is due to the destructive desires of patients and that they must “hold” them.
In the summaries of the critic – this is a remarkable problem that concerns the management of patients with mental disorders and is very clearly defined in men. The main reason for this study is to investigate its impact on helping to fight gloomy people.

  1. Analysis:

An online survey was conducted to analyze the views of the people about this topic. 68 people participated in this survey and of which 33 were males and the rest were females. People with ages ranging from 18 to 25 years participated and answered the questions. More than half were in the panel of disagreement when they were asked whether they could snap out of the discussion or not. The same happened when they were asked if depression is the reason of personal weakness.56 people disagreed that depression is not a real medical illness. The results were pretty strange when people were asked that “Are v ft people with depression dangerous?” 30% remained neutral and about 25% remained against this argument. They were asked all the questions in the questionnaire in the appendix section. Many of people agreed that people with depression are really unpredictable and this led to a result that the opinion varies people to person. The same happened when they answered the question that if they will have depression will they tell others?w WA When they were asked regarding the question of the politician who is having depression people were pretty against and disagreed with the argument of not voting for him/her. Most of them agreed that avoiding people having depression will be better. Most of them said that it is likely that they have an intimate partner. Same with the case of a friend having depression. People were asked about family, relatives, religious people, etc and the standard deviation remained between 1.0 to 1.2. At last when they were given the example of John and were asked to comment on what they thought?
Some said he is mentally ill, some said he is having a tough day, some said it’s anxiety, some said it’s depression, and this varied from person to person. The responses from the people were pretty helpful for this study and clearly show that the result was obtained on the opinion of the public.

  1. Rationale:

Based on Aizen’s hypothesis (in Aizen, 1985) and his animated world of Planned Behavior (TPB) (see Figure 1. in the Appendix), the activities of a person involved in ethical problems and conditions are in addition indicated by social goals. Judgments about certain behaviors are viewed as moral, ethical, and ethical control, all of which cooperate with the promotion of career choice (Ajzen, 1985). Abuse among young people is common and ongoing in the West (MacLeod, Horwood Fergusson, 2016), and the disturbance of the mind is disturbed by contrasting with the general public (Thomas, Caputi Wilson, 2013). Therefore, the focus of this research is allowing young sexual love for them to lose power and make it easier to seek an attitude, as well as fact that the previous indication that there is a separation between men and women due to this (Georgakakou Koutsonikou Williams, 2017). State examinations in the past person, and found embarrassing mental well-being seeking help (Zhi-Lian noChandrasekara, 2016; Sukri 2015; Gulliver, Griffiths Kristensen, 2010; Eisenberg, Downs, Golberstein noZivin, 2009; Bock, 2008), the number of people to find (Kim and Zane, 2016), and young people (18-25 years old) are the best of them to seek help (Sukri, 2015). Unemployment and recent analysis can cause wonderful heart problems and emotional, for example. Infinite grief, issuing or more (McLeod, Horwood Fergusson, 2016, uSukri, 2015; Joyce, Pauli Myler, Burns, Howell Maycock, 2012; Gulliver, Griffiths Kristensen, 2010; Romer block, 2008). This is in the investigation appears if there is shooting resulting in problems in the light of the development of emotional beauty in the midst of the problems of Leeds Trinity University (Joyce, Pauli Myler, Burns, Howell noMexicockl, 2012), within the visual center boys and women.
The purpose of this study is to find out whether sex affects the ideas of young people, as well as depression and help.
Stigma and the relation of gender:
It is expected that the report of Canada will take into account the peculiarities associated with gloomy globalization, during which 3,047 people were interviewed, 2,557 interrogated (958 men and 1, 999 women). The PC helped use the telephone connection to explore individual frustrations, sadness, loss of life, and the public. Individual humiliation (or self-esteem) was assessed using Griffith’s previously mentioned indicator.
Men with a high level of shame (12.7, 95% guaranteed about 12.4-13.0) are women (this means that 10.0, 95% is guaranteed between 9.7-10.3, P <0.001). Emakhompheni many repetitive, more accurate data on destruction (local technology) were able to bring down the shame of shame, paying little respect to the direct sex feature. These experts supported experts and medicines as the best help in the dark. For men, accepting family/friends as the best refusal was completely associated with shameful schools.
In the organism of farmers, the highest level of blasphemy in men is rare, since men probably have a higher profession than women; the disappointment of men who can not achieve their goals. Thus, 1,229 patients with schizophrenia in 14 European countries showed a high level of self-control in women. Comparative results were written elsewhere. In any case, another test could not strengthen any sexual behavior.
Immorality (identified as “Hidden Hidden”) and open shame were examined by 248 Caucasians (207 women) by Caucasian and African adults in the United States, who were discouraged for more than 60 years. Topics were read over the phone. African Americans show the highest risk of suicide (t [246] = -2.118, P = 0.035) with little success (Cohen = 0.26) than the Caucasian themes. Likewise, they show more unreasonable things to seek emotional treatment. Studies have shown that offensive speech is not enough for the interaction between competition and psychological procedures10
An American study of the faith of many American Americans about the negative consequences of depression and the features associated with the use of selected mental health conditions was selected by 153 advanced people (56 men and 97 women) at age 55 and older who are influential. Using a dark vignette, the participants assume that the person was disappointed with the support of objects that reflect faith, shame, influence management, and the use of medications. The survey tested for the current disease.
The bad effect of despondency (usually low) was 24.2 percent. Many studies have received strong medications, a tendency to be treated at the workplace by doctors and consultants, and a willingness to take medicine. Among scandals, 28.9% of accompanying propaganda “is a sign of an individual deficit”, 27.5% “will be afraid that others will find answers to their illness”, and 33.3% “will feel stronger if this side realizes it.” Repeated reflection indicates that “the group’s penchant for unfortunately being imprisoned” was one of the things associated with preparing for a doctor when you feel discouraged. The relationship between indicators and treatment readiness was influenced by sexual behavior and the state of the clinic (discouragement or not).
An evaluation aimed at examining African-American beliefs about psychological abuse means psychology in search of help and converts 272 resident subjects (58% of men). Supplement increases by 25 and 72 years. Melancholy was the most famous instability of the brain.
Inventory attitude to psychology was one of the most frequently used weapons. This tool consists of three subscales, that is, mental light, help – to eliminate unity, and lack of anxiety. Misunderstandings include levels of humanity in determining the problems of emotional well-being. Experimental tests of shame are the main factor in assessing self-esteem, for example, “excessive concern about shameful anxiety.” Women showed remarkable psychological (P <0.03) and high potential for a psychic psychologist (0.02) than men. The level of anxiety about shame is not important for the creation, sex, and end of mental illness. The average rating is used to test the touch style to love. The results showed that, although these topics are available for psychological treatment, they rely on religious changes.
Assesment of stigma related to the public:
The comparative rating and abuse have 12 functions. Members from 1 (direct controversy) to 6 (strong conversions) determine how people view current (or previous) patients with mental health. “Many will not hire a mental patient to cope with their babies, no matter how long you stay” is something.
The scandal of scandal was created by Griffiths and others and by a final study whose purpose was to assess the impact of Internet data on depression. The rating has 18 experiences, “one shame” and “scandal”, considered by nine elements. “Humiliation of each person” suggests that a person is close to families, although “shame” reflects a person’s confidence in the thinking of others. “Sadness is a sign of failure for someone” is something that treats every shame. Like the obscure obscene script, “many people believe that suffering is a sign of an individual deficit.” “Shame of other people” is self-respect if the respondent is discouraged.
Assesment of stigma related to the public:
Introspection is examined using a standardized stigma of scale of mental illness. This scale is surrounded by the maximum experience of the patient, providing such support ads as “I’m ashamed and ashamed of a mental illness”.
Self-Stigma for Needed Helps A 10-item tool that uses Likert-5 space for verification or understanding or critical analysis, because “it can affect me, feeling better than my assistant.” Analysts were tested or forgotten, having received information about the clinics used for the patient.
The findings from previous stages recommend that with a specific goal of correcting the wrong attitude in seeking help from men, psychological intervention should be aimed at self-sacrifice. Emphasizing the feelings of people in their darkness and other mental disorders can be the most effective way to deal with their change in their search for attitudes than trying to convert this arrangement directly. However, we must remember that these results are found in people who are not obese or have symptoms of depression. These are the symptoms of depression in patients who suffer from health problems. Additionally, in the book, it is recommended to compare the diversity of sexual intercourse, shameful observation, the treatment of poor patients.
The introduction of the website completely reduced the embarrassment of some of them, despite the fact that the dispute was small. Data of discouragement does not affect the apparent scandal, and the site of intellectual behavior is associated with a slight increase in obscene control over the control. Shameless changes did not prevent the formation of suffering or mental preparation. The beneficiaries of psychological treatment show a reduction in one shame, but this is not the result of the negative consequences of depression.

    1. Impact of sigma:

An illness associated with mental illness can be an important factor in the causes of removal – to eliminate actions and practices and, as a limited part, refers to taking advantage of the benefits of taking advantage of the best African Americans. Like every Goffman, a dishonest brand is a trademark or trademark that does not allow those who are looking for a full range of social services in the sports community. This includes misunderstandings, psychology, and beliefs of people with such brands. Derision is classified as the standardization of significant mental health services and promotes poor quality care, especially for Americans.
To see the connection between shame related to natural disasters, race and therapeutic procedures, and behavior among adults with the age of loneliness, we check the following beliefs:
1) Elderly Americans will have better ideas for seeking treatment than their white partners.
2) American Americans will be threatened to be present at the worst and most undesirable treatment of removal than whites.
3) Elderly Americans will report larger and more open deaths than their white counterparts.
4) Stigma (open and hidden) will be associated with greater protection than psychological and behavioral behavior during pregnancy.

  1. Self-indulgence will discourage competition between competition and psychological and therapeutic treatment.
    1. 5.2. Limitations:
  2. The results of this study should be reflected within its boundaries. It is possible that people who decided to start an investigation now have a very open and implicit humiliation or an assortment for various reasons, which caused their doubts in the verification. Among these lines, Americans who participate in the current test may have been less embarrassed than qualified people. The magnitude of the impact of significant numbers, despite the slightest differences, was not a minor change in the research community, despite the excellent example of heterogeneity. These problems give you an opportunity to feel the great importance of the results clinic. The methods of administrative use are focused on the emotional health care provided by a physician or psychologist to preventive care, such as a church, family, or friends, which is widely used for race or race. Perhaps the closest closure for testing is the lack of a clear need for members compared to the demand requiring stress depression.
  3. Conclusion:

This experimental test affects the stigmatization of racial and psychological treatments between adults and is more experienced and saddened. The results are recommended, as long as we feel embarrassed among experienced adults, major parents, Americans of America, the most common people, have embarrassed shyness and unhealthy psychologically in seeking healing therapies than their white partners. In addition, the unusual situation is the disgraceful ignorance that has been identified by the wicked provisions of treatment and, in fact, in the medieval city for the liberation of racial and psychological behavior. The worst concern remains the low expectation of finding and sharing psychological testing services between adults and more experienced thinkers about members, especially blacksmiths in the United States, the most experienced adults. Opening this test to give an important understanding and embarrassment associated with the pain and effect of emotional behaviors. This way we understand will help mental-health professionals to concentrate on reducing melancholy embarrassment, which will improve his attitude toward the state of emotional well-being and improve the practice and treatment of more than older adults.
Design, Participants & recruitment:
An online study that uses the opportunity to study college double at Leeds Trinity University. Registration will be made with Leeds Trinity messages (press Add-ons) using the RPS program and connecting to network networking services. Participants will be men and women aged 18-24 (young people). The size of test 52 is calculated using the G * Power 3.0.10 version of the maximum output f = 0.40 with real power of 0.81.
Hypotheses & Analyses:
H1: There will be a relationship between stigma (as measured by the depression stigma scale) and help-seeking
H2: Females will have lower levels of stigma and higher levels of help-seeking when compared to males.
Independent Variable: Gender (Males/Females)
Dependent Variable: Stigma; Help-seeking
Correlational analyses will determine if there is a relationship between stigma and help-seeking. Regression analyses will determine if there is an association between gender, stigma, and help-seeking.
Referring to the ethical principle: of respect.
B2: As a researcher in this study I will respect participants’ individual differences regarding age and gender; answer all the questions and explain when needed why this information is important for this study; I will keep collecting data confidential and anonymous.
B6: As depression could be a sensitive topic and possibly cause emotional distress, participants’ Debrief Sheet contains a few web links with information about depression and sources of help and support.
Appendix 1
Figure 1.

Appendix 2
Depression Stigma Scale (Griffiths, Christensen, Jorm, Evans & Groves, 2004).
Depression Stigma Scale (DSS)
This 18-point rating was prepared by Professor Kathleen Griffiths, Ph.D., Health Research Center, ANU. In the DSS, there are two types of subscales: DSS-individuals (average contact with home-based psychological concerns) and DSS-saw (the average belief of the respondent slander of others).
Each item is equal to the rating of 5 points from 0 to 4.
Individual test for DSS (DSS-individual) = number of positions from 1 to 9 (field from 0 to 36)
DSS-saw display (DSS-saw) = all items 10-18 (field from 0 to 36)
An analysis of the 18 main components of the study illustrates two aspects (a) personal blasphemy and (b) discrimination.
Dr. Cathy Griffiths,
Professor and director of the department of consumer research on stress and anxiety,
Psychotherapy Center, ANU. [email protected]
Questions 1 to 18 contain statements about depression. Please indicate how much you personally agree or disagree with each statement.

  1. People having hypertension could get rid of it if they desire.

Strongly agree 4
Agree 3
Neither agree nor disagree 2
Disagree 1
Strongly disagree 0

  1. Personal weakness can also be measured by depression.
  2. Real mental illness is not directly associated with depression.
  3. Depression makes people dangerous.
  4. Avoiding depression could be a sign of best so that you may not become depressed as well.
  5. Unpredictability is often found in people with depression.
  6. I would not disclose if I have a depression problem.
  7. If a person is depressed I will not employ him/her.
  8. If a politician had been depressed and I know I would not vote for him.

In the meantime, we may want you to express what you think of other people who accept it. If you do not worry, show how much you agree or you can not dispute the related statements.

  1. Most people believe that people with depression could snap out of it if they wanted.

Strongly agree 4
Agree 3
Neither agree nor disagree 2
Disagree 1
Strongly disagree 0
11 Many people believe that depression is a sign of personal weakness.
12 Many people believe that depression is not a real medical condition.
13 Many people think that people with depression are dangerous.
14 Many people think it’s best to avoid people with depression so that you do not give up.
15 Most people believe that people with depression can not.
16 When depressed, many people did not tell anyone.
17 Many employers knew they were depressed.
18 Many people did not vote politically, and knew that they were depressed.
Appendix 3
General Help-seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ; Wilson, Deane, Ciarrochi, & Rickwood, 2005)

3. John felt annoyed and unhappy for two weeks. He does not like food and pounds. He cannot keep his mind on his investigation, and his writings have fallen. You have postponed your choice choice and feel that daily assignments are passing by. To him, life is worthless, and he does not feel that he is more qualified as a human.

If you were feeling like John, how likely is it that you would seek help from the following people?

If you do not worry you express your reaction by placing a linear number that clearly reflects your goal, and seek help from each written help source.

1 = Extremely Unlikely 3 = Unlikely 5 = Likely 7 = Extremely Likely


a. Intimate partner (e.g., girlfriend, boyfriend, husband, wife, de’ facto) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
b. Friend (not related to you) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
c. Parent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
d. another relative/family member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
e. Mental health professional (e.g. psychologist, social worker, counselor) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
f. Phone helpline (e.g. Lifeline) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
g. Doctor/GP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
h. Minister or religious leader (e.g. Priest, Rabbi, Chaplain) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
i. I would not seek help from anyone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
j. I would seek help from another not listed above (please list in the space provided, e.g., work colleague. If no, leave blank)_______________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


  1. What, if anything, is wrong with John? ___________________________________________________
  2. Do you think John needs help ()? Yes No

Appendix 4
Participant Information Sheet
What is this study about?
This study is investigating the effect of gender on the perception of depression and help-seeking among adolescent undergraduate University students.
What does the study involve?
If you decide to participate, the whole study should not take longer than 15 minutes. Your task will involve answering questions of two questionnaires presented to you on the computer screen. Questions will ask you about your perception of depression and your attitudes toward help-seeking. When you have finished answering the questions you will be provided with further information about the study in a debriefing form.
Any benefits or risks associated with this study?
Participation is voluntary, and there are no rewards for taking part, however, undergraduate students could benefit by gaining an experience of participation in the psychological study and gain credits for the Research Participation Scheme. Please note the main focus of this study is depression, therefore if you feel like this would be a sensitive subject, then maybe you should not participate.
Can I withdraw from the study?
You can withdraw from the study at any point and up to 2 weeks after participation. You will need to email the researcher with your participation code and all your data will be destroyed.
How will the data be dealt with and who will see the results?
All the responses and collected data are anonymous and confidential and will be stored securely at the University for a period of five years, with only the researcher and project supervisor having access to it.
What if I require further information about the study or my involvement in it?
If you have any questions, feel free to contact the researcher by their email.
Western Australia. Office of Citizenship and Multicultural Interests. (2000). 2000 migrant services directory: A Western Australian guide for migrants and service providers. Perth, WA: Office of Citizenship and Multicultural Interests.
American Educational Research Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (2000). National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy. Retrieved from
Angus, J. (2006). Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla [wood veneers, nylon]. Perth: Art Gallery of Western Australia.
The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. (1991). Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K. & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. BMJ, 323, 480-484. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7311.480
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.443
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (1999). Australia’s young people: Their health and well-being, the report on the health of young people aged 12-24 years. Canberra, ACT: AIHW.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Coping: The psychology of what works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Russell, B. (1967). The autobiography of Bertrand Russell (Vols. 1-3). London, England: Allen & Unwin.
The pain of being a caffeine freak. (2001, October 6). New Scientist, 172(2311), 27.
Baskin, T. W. & Enright, R. D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(1), 79-90.
Berkman, L. F. & Syme, S. L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology. 109(2), 186-204.
Diener, E. & Seligman, M. E. Very happy people. Psychological Science 13(1): 81-84.
Freedman, S. R. & Enright, R. D. (1996). Forgiveness as an intervention goal with incest survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 983-992.
Hawkley, L. C., Masi, C. M., Berry, J. D., Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Loneliness is a unique predictor of age-related differences in systolic blood pressure. Psychology and Aging, 21(1), 152-164.
Israel, B. A., Farquhar, S. A., Schulz, A. J., James, S. A., & Parker, E. A. (2002). The relationship between social support, stress, and health among women on Detroit’s East Side. Health Education & Behavior, 29(3), 342-360.
Mental Health America. (2006). Mental Health America attitudinal survey: Findings on stress in America. Alexandria, VA.
Babyak, M., Blumenthal, J. A., Herman, S., Khatri, P., Doraiswamny, M., Moore, K., Craighead, W.E., Baldewicz, T. T., & Krishnan, K. R. (2000). Exercise treatment for major depression: Maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(5), 633-638.
Ettinger, W. H., Burns, R., Messier, S. P., Applegate, W., Rejeski, W. J., Morgan, T., Shumaker, S., Berry, M. J., O’Toole, M., Monu, J., & Craven, T. (1997). A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 25–31.
Galper, D.L., Trivedi, M.H., Barlow, C.E., Dunn, A.L, & Kampert, J.B. (2006). The inverse association between physical inactivity and mental health in men and women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(1), 173-178.
Hamer, M., Stamatakis, E., & Steptoe, A. (April 10, 2008). Dose-response relationship between physical activity and mental health: The Scottish Health Survey. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (January 2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 9(1), 58-65.
King, A. C., Baumann, K., O’Sullivan, P., Wilcox, S., & Castro, C. (2002). Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to family caregiving: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57, M26-M36.
Anon, Depression. National Institute of Mental Health. Available at: [Accessed March 9, 2018].
Kim, B. & Gillham, D., 2015. Gender differences among young adult cancer patients: a study of blogs. Computers, informatics, nursing: CIN. Available at: [Accessed March 9, 2018].
Anon, Hotline Information. Fighting Stigma – Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. Available at: [Accessed March 9, 2018].
Bloch, D., 2014. Overcoming the Stigma of Depression. Available at: [Accessed March 9, 2018].
The stigma of Depression. (n.d.). Retrieved March 09, 2018, from
Hotline Information. (n.d.). Retrieved March 09, 2018, from
Laderer, A. A. (2018, February 20). The Stigma of Depression. Retrieved March 09, 2018, from
Wolpert, L. (2001, March 01). The stigma of depression – a personal view | British Medical Bulletin | Oxford Academic. Retrieved March 09, 2018, from
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior, pp. 11-39. Heidelberg: Springer.
Cheng, H. L., McDermott, R. C., & Lopez, F. G. (2015). Mental health, self-stigma, and help-seeking intentions among emerging adults: An attachment perspective. The Counseling Psychologist43(3), 463-487.
Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., … & Thornicroft, G. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological medicine45(1), 11-27.
Eisenberg, D., Downs, M.F., Golberstein, E. & Zivin, K. (2009). Stigma and Help Seeking for Mental Health Among College Students. Medical Care Research and Review, 66(5), 522-541.
Georgakakou-Koutsonikou, N. & Williams, J.M. (2017). Children and young people’s conceptualizations of depression: a systematic review and narrative meta-synthesis. Child: care, health, and development, 43(2), 161-181. DOI: 10.1111/cch.12439
Good, G. E., Dell, D. M., & Mintz, L. B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help-seeking in men. Journal of counseling psychology36(3), 295.
Griffiths, K. M., Christensen, H., & Jorm, A. F. (2008). Predictors of depression stigma. BMC Psychiatry8(1), 25.
Griffiths, K. M., Christensen, H., Jorm, A. F., Evans, K., & Groves, C. (2004). Personal Depression Stigma Scale. Psych tests, doi:10.1037/t12227-000
Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K.M., Christensen, H. (2010). Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 10. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-113
Joyce, A.W., Pauli-Myler, T., Burns, S., Howatl, P., Maycockl, B. (2012). Adolescent Mental Health Promotion: Could it be Assisted by Considering the Functions of Depression in Young People? International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 10(1), 16-22.
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of general psychiatry62(6), 593-602.
Kim, J. E., & Zane, N. (2016). Help-seeking intentions among Asian American and White American students in psychological distress: Application of the health belief model. Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology22(3), 311-321. doi:10.1037/cdp0000056
McLeod, G.F.H., Horwood, L.J. & Fergusson, D.M. (2016). Adolescent depression, adult mental health and psychosocial outcomes at 30 and 35 years. Psychological Medicine. 46(7), 1401-1412.
Mojtabai, R., Olfson, M., & Han, B. (2016). National trends in the prevalence and treatment of depression in adolescents and young adults. Pediatrics, e20161878.
Pedersen, E. R., & Paves, A. P. (2014). Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample. Psychiatry research, 219(1), 143-150.
Romer, D. & Bock, M. (2008). Reducing The Stigma of Mental Illness Among Adolescents and Young Adults: The Effects of Treatment Information. Journal of Health Communication, 13(8), 742-758.
Sukri, S.K. (2015). Accessing Mental health support: where do young adults seek help and barriers do they face? The University of Hertfordshire.
Taylor-Rodgers, E., & Batterham, P. J. (2014). Evaluation of an online psychoeducation intervention to promote mental health help-seeking attitudes and intentions among young adults: randomized controlled trial. Journal of affective disorders168, 65-71.
Thomas, S. J., Caputi, P., & Wilson, C. J. (2014). Specific Attitudes Which Predict Psychology Students’ Intentions to Seek Help for Psychological Distress. Journal Of Clinical Psychology70(3), 273-282. doi:10.1002/jclp.22022
Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., Ciarrochi, J., & Rickwood, D. (2005). Measuring help-seeking intentions: Properties of the general help-seeking questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 39, 15–28.
Zhi-xia, C., & Chandrasekara, W. (2016). The Psychological Mechanism of Stigmatizing Attitudes toward Help-Seeking Behavior for Mental Health Problems. International Journal Of Management, Accounting & Economics3(11), 720-734.



Calculate Your Order

Standard price





Porter’s Five Forces

The Porter Five Forces Model is used for industry analysis and business strategy formulation. It examines the various elements that contribute to the attractiveness and

Read More »