Academic Master


State Index for Lakes

Eutrophication is the excessive enrichment of water bodies with nutrients and minerals due to unregulated water runoff into the water bodies. This intern increases the growth of plants such as algae in the water bodies that reduce the oxygen concentration in the water bodies. Finally, water creatures end up dying due to insufficient oxygen for their survival. Eutrophication has serious and long term ecological effects, with the most common effect of eutrophication being the algal blooms. Whenever a bloom occurs, rivers, oceans, lakes, and even streams are covered by algae that is bright green in color. Other than looking ugly, these algae prevents light from reaching the water, and this affects the photosynthesis process of aquatic plants.

There are two-fold effects of sediment pollution may take two forms physical dimension, and chemical dimension. Physical dimension is where the topsoil is lost due to soil erosion majorly sheet erosion that leads to both excess levels of turbidity in receiving runoff waters. It, therefore, leads to deposition of ecology and physical effects into the lake bottoms. Chemical deposition is where the silt-clay fraction of the eroded materials mainly by sheet erosion gained chemical compatibility during erosion especially phosphorous and nitrogen usually from insecticides and pesticides spraying, which was uninterruptedly transported into the water bodies

Based on Carlson’s trophic state index it is evident that the trophic state of the water is in a mesotrophic state. Similarly, the Secchi depth transparency is low since due to the numerous deposition of effluents into the waterbed. Hence it becomes hard for once eyes to penetrate through the water bodies

The vast amounts of sediments carried along into the Gulf lead to stronger algae growth in the gulf. This reduces the oxygen concentration in the water body that usually occurs when bacteria break down algae. The result always leads to the absolute death of all sea creatures leading to a dead zone in the gulf.

Cultural eutrophication is the process that accelerates eutrophication. This is always caused by an increase in the human activities such as building cities clearing land and increasing effluents release to water bodies. Additional nutrients may also be supplied by agricultural practices, treatment plants, and golf courses. In this case human activities are the major source of increased nutrients in water bodies, hence this makes cultural eutrophication more popular in the ecosystems where the level of human activities is high. Arctic Regions where human activities are less, have lower levels of cultural eutrophication.

There are several ways of reducing phosphorous and nitrogen wastes into the water bodies; they include; using manure and applying sufficient chemical amounts that can be fully used by the soil hence no waste. Second, is by preventing livestock from entering the water bodies, this is because they can easily release there waste to the water bodies. This introduces phosphorous and nitrogen to the water bodies. Third, is to use non-phosphorous fertilizers on gardens and lawns. Fourth, phosphorous may be reduced in water bodies is by having a manure management plan. This entails proper, collection, storage, transfer, and application at yield uptake rates. As a final point, growing and maintaining vegetation along the water run areas these can reduce the speed of ware run, and that intern reduces the erosion of soil.



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