Sialkot has many types of industries including leather, pharmaceuticals, textile and metallurgical. Therefore, it is known as Pakistan’s largest support. Due to fast development in the industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities in the area, the surface, as well as groundwater, is degraded. The effluent discharge from tanneries is 1.1 liters per day. The water consumed by industries returned to the water reservoirs nearby. The toxic substances in that water percolate down the soil, causing the contamination of water supplies and aquifers. The other causes of groundwater pollution that are hazardous, includes agricultural runoff, flooding, and the dumping sites. The proper monitoring of the environment is needed, including the quality and quantity of the water resources. As there are no any previous detailed studies available regarding monitoring and the assessment of groundwater, the study designed to examine the quality of groundwater quality and its effects on human health. The GIS maps will be made to know the physiochemical and ecology of the groundwater systems. The results from this study will be helpful to assess the sources of groundwater pollution and groundwater management through different tools.
The main sources of drinking water and irrigation in Sialkot is groundwater. The quality of water is getting worse due to the release of effluents from industries and urban areas. The initial causes of groundwater pollution include the wastes of industries, urban areas, and agriculture sector. The main pollutants from agriculture are pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. The levels of Pb and Fe in the study area are above the level specified by WHO and the turbidity is 57%. Zone 1 was more affected as compared to zone 2. There were high levels of Zn and PB in all sites. About 60 percent sites were having high levels of Fe3. Two sites were highly contaminated with Cr +6 from tanning industries. This study also presents statistical methods of groundwater assessment and the parameters to indicate the causes of pollution