The body of a human being is composed of a variety of complex systems. Different organs work together to form complex systems. Some of these systems comprise of the skeletal system, integumentary system, muscular system, reproductive system, and digestive system. This research project tends to analyze the skeletal system, specifically the physiology and anatomy of bones.
Skeletal System: Brief Overview
The system which supports the basic framework on which the whole body gets its support is called skeletal system. The purpose of the skeletal system is to offer support for the movement of the body. The internal organs and the muscular tissues of the body get protection and support from the skeletal system. It provides mineral homeostasis and blood cell formation. Furthermore, it acts as a storage room for triglycerides and calcium ions. (Tortora & Derrickson, 2018)
The human body has its skeletal system underneath its skin and muscles. That is why the skeletal system of human beings is known as the endoskeleton. The skeletal system comprises of joints, bones, and cartilaginous bones. A developed human being has 206 bones in their body. The anatomical structure of the skeletal system is complex. It consists of bones and joints. The skeletal system works in integration with the muscular system while functioning in the body. The ligament tissues attach the bones and joints to the muscles of the body which are then controlled by the brain (nervous system) of the body.
Classification of the Skeletal System
The skeleton system of humans is classified into two parts: “the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton”. As shown in the following diagram, these two parts of the skeletal system can be easily distinguished.
Figure (“The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton,” 2019)
The axial skeleton comprises of “the skull, spine, and ribcage”. The purpose of the axial skeleton is to back up the fundamental alignment of the body. Protection and support is provided by the axial skeleton to the organs like the “brain, spinal cord, esophagus, lungs, heart, and special sense organs (eyes, ears, tongue, and nose)”. On the other hand, the limbs and bones are part of the appendicular skeleton. These limbs and bones include “arms, legs, shoulder, and hip girdles”. (“The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton,” 2019)
The bones play a significant role in body movement. They are one of the major parts of the skeletal system. The connective tissues known as ligaments help two bones or cartilages to join and function at a joint. The muscles are attached to the bones through tendons. Tendons are inelastic connective tissues. The movement of bones takes place with collaborated functioning of “muscles, joints, tendons and ligament tissues”. (Medical Sciences – 3rd Edition, n.d.)
Structure of Bone tissues
The bone tissues are divided into two types based upon their density. These are compact and spongy bone tissues. The compact bones are denser than the spongy bones. The compact bones consist of densely packed “Haversian systems or osteons”. The Haversian system looks like a solid mass. The spongy bones which are also known as cancellous bones are less dense and have asymmetrical cavities containing red bone marrow, which make them less dense. The spongy bones consist of “trabeculae next to red bone marrow”. (Medical Sciences – 3rd Edition, n.d.)
Classification and Composition of Bones
Bones can also be classified in terms of their different shapes and sizes. The four major types of bones are “the sesamoid bones, the irregular bones, the long bones, the short bones, and the flat bones”. The bones are composed of different components. The bone matrix consists of “25 percent of organic matrix (osteoid), 50 percent of inorganic mineral content (mineral salts), and 25 percent of water” (Tortora & Derrickson, 2018)
Figure (Types of Bones Anatomy, 2019)
In a nutshell, the skeletal system of human beings consists of different complex organs such as bones, joints, ligaments, and cartilages which function together to help the body move. The bones play a significant role in the functioning of the skeletal system. If there is any problem in the bones, the body suffers pain and fails to function properly.
Medical Sciences—3rd Edition. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2021, from https://www.elsevier.com/books/medical-sciences/naish/978-0-7020-7337-3
The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton. (2019, June 25). TeachPE.Com. https://www.teachpe.com/anatomy-physiology/axial-appendicular-skeleton
Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. H. (2018). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. John Wiley & Sons.
Types of Bones Anatomy. (2019, September 25). Registered Nurse RN. https://www.registerednursern.com/types-of-bones-anatomy/