The Seven-Years war was the first worldwide armed war between 1756 to 1763, involving big powers of that time affecting India, North America, Europe. The fight was between Russia, Austria, France, Saxony, Sweden and Spain (Spain joined a war in 1762) on one side and Prussia, Britain and Hanover (a German state) on the other hand. This war staged a power structure for North America and Europe, and usurpation of force and power in India by GB. In North America, British and French fought a war as early as in 1754 (Riley 36). Both nations tried to oust each other by ignoring the rights of tribes who had been residing there.
The 1755 battle of Monongahela River was the very first fight of French and Indian that was folded into seven years, now known as seven years war. Fredrick, the then ruler of Prussia, was creating problems by invading Saxony and Austria. Since Maria Theresa was the queen of Hungary and Bohemia, France declared war with Prussia to uphold the Versailles Treaty between Austria and France. Allies of Prussia were Britain and German state Hanover. To evade the attack by British, French threatened to attack England and annex it later on. But, this plan ended with the defeat of French fleet in 1759 (Anderson 40). This essay will include all the grounds and historical events that caused and led to the war, and how significant it was for North Americans time span ranging from 1954 to 1964?
This seven-year war was not limited to the battles, but it escalated to the trade in India. This competition of trade between France and England ended with the fight and setting up of East India Company and to put their puppet government. The battle between France and British also included the Carribean as well. English navy took several islands comprising of Marie-Galante, Guadaloupe, and Martinique. Later Spain entered and joined the war in 1762. In the same year, British ships seized Havana and Cuba from Spain.
After years, on February 10, 1763, a treat of Paris was formally signed. France gave Lousiana to Spain, but it kept New Orleans and other three Carribean islands with itself. Spain surrendered Florida to English but re-claimed Cuba. British got all French towns, India and Ohio.
Causes, Events, Effects, and Result of War
The settlement issue in Ohio zone is considered to have been the leading cause of leading the fight. Both Great Britain and France annexed Ohio and directed their traders to trade with Ohio Indians (Peters). The region was considered hub to the both countries’ goals of further development in North America. At the same time, the Iroquois demanded the region by conquest. The contention between the two European nations, for control of the area, played a crucial role in an eruption of the Indian and French War in 1750 (Anderson 25). In 1753, France built fortifications in the area. In response, the governor of Virginia (the then a British colony) sent soldiers to the Ohio frontier. Washington crushed a small French detachment, but, later massive French force conquered Washington.
In 1756 April, the additional French army under the new commander named ‘Montcalm,’ reached to Canada. Soon after it, Britain declared war in next month. The tactic of the French commander, ‘Marquis De Vaudreuil’ kept Britain on the defensive. Montcalm took the British Fort Osweg0 in 1756 and got control of the Great Lakes. France also netted Fort William Henry. In the year 1758, the battle twisted contrary to the French, with the English force hurling numerous attacks on France’s outposts. In July, 15,000 American and British troops, attacked Fort Carillon, but they were defeated with a power of 3800 soldiers by Montcalm. However, England attacked Louisbourg the same year in summer, which opened up the gates for British ships. In August 1758, Great Britain demolished fort Frontenac (Farhatullah 4).
The next year 1759, the British expanded to Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Islands with the surprise of three campaigns against French defense. Two British armies forwarded to Canada while a third captured Niagara. Major-General James wolf of Royal Navy, with nine-thousand army-men to Quebec. Whereas, General Jeffery annexed Lake-Champlain. Although, Wolfe persuaded Montcalm to fight a battle on 13th Sept 1759 outside the Quebec region, which caused a substantial obstruction within the battle of Plains of Abraham; further, this city yielded later after few days.
The situation of Britain at Quebec was feeble; the Royal’s Navy withdrew from the area isolating the British garrison. The following April, when Chevalier De Levis became in charge of the French force, quickly overpowered the British on the same combat zone. The British withdrew to Quebec, and Levis sieged the city (Kennett 256). The French army-men also relinquished Montreal and was forced to relent to Jeffery on 8 September 1760. English took Martinique in 1762, and Spanish intrusion saved the other French islands captured by France in the West Indies.
Paris Peace Treaty and Significance
Although, by 1760 British were under the massive state debt. The minister for War, William Pitt, was also ousted from office in 1761 by the George III king, and ceasefire negotiations began. The French government was indomitable to redeem the valuable sugar colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique. France relinquished the significant precincts of Louisiana to Spain to pay for the submission of Florida to England to force the Spanish king to negotiate for the peace process.
Canada was left by France for Britain, as it was not commercially essential and valuable for France but the islands of the West Indies. Location and size of Canada made it an expensive defending colony (Ward 63). Moreover, Choiseul was of the view that the colonies in America that no more need English protection, would soon come to the street for revolution. It boosted the Americans confidence, and Twelve years later, a revolt occurred in American colonies against Britain (Savory).
Ironically, with the context of significant, the Military aid of French to American enabled them to gain Independence and to become independent. The bicultural foundation of Modern Canada was also due to the Seven years of War. Great Britain had also been proven as the great power of age. The event is entirely noteworthy, that molded countries, governments, a map of the continent and lives. This war was the end of French power in the USA. It became the first battle in the history of human-kind to be fought around the globe.
Anderson, Fred. “Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War.” (2000).
Anderson, Fred. A People’s Army: Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years’ War. UNC Press Books, 2012.
Farhatullah, Rai. “Seven Years War.”
Kennett, Lee B. The French armies in the Seven Years’ War: a study in military organization and administration. Duke Univ Pr, 1967.
Peters, Marie. Pitt and popularity: the patriot minister and London opinion during the Seven Years War. Oxford University Press, 1980.
Riley, James C. The Seven Years War and the Old Regime in France: The Economic and Financial Toll. Princeton University Press, 2014.
Savory, Reginald Arthur. His Britannic Majesty’s Army in Germany during the Seven Years War. Oxford, Clarendon, 1966.
Ward, Matthew C. Breaking The Backcountry: Seven Years War In Virginia And Pennsylvania 1754-1765. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.