Risk refers to hazard, danger, possibility of bad results etc. But according to the guide which is published by the Project Management Institute and the Association for Project Management have referred to the broader perspective of risk, which states that any uncertainty or any unexpected event which when happens may have a positive or negative effect on the project goal. Another definition states, an uncertain event which when occurs will have a positive or negative impact on the accomplishment of the project’s objective (PMI & APM).
Risk management is the most critical and related phase of clinical governance. Clinical governance is the system which makes National Health services accountable for continuously improving the standards of clinical care. It is the job of National Health Service to improve the quality of services. Different approaches are studied in literature that highlighted the need to perform comprehensive analysis to find out the root cause of adverse events (2011 Elsevier). Recently healthcare systems are involved in numerous changes at different levels, ranging from the technological advancements to behavioral ones, working in them to increase the efficiency. Moreover, the medical advancements in the last few years have contributed a lot to raise the organization complexity level at hospitals, this is caused by many factors such as non-uniform management model, diverse professional experience, complexity on surgery and constant growth in the number of users of healthcare services. As a result, complexity in the field of medicine is driven by invention and innovation in science as well as technology department, this emphasizes the need for new models of management (Bridges, 2006). The aim of clinical governance is to ensure that patients receive best quality of healthcare services. The systems and processes are included in clinical governance to constantly improve services and for monitoring, clinical audit, clinical effectiveness program, risk management, management of staff, education and training, and the use of information in order to deliver best healthcare services (Sale, 2005). It is found in previous studies that risk management in clinical governance does not always goes according to the predictions. Moreover it is found that risk management does not rely on the understanding of the individuals working in the investigating procedures, it does not also give a worthy support to decision making. Clinical risk is defined as the probability that the patient may get effected by the medical treatment in a positive way or the negative, maybe voluntarily or involuntarily (Kohn et al., 1999). In clinical risk, medical errors are very much significant since they may arise during different medical processes, from thorough preparation, therapy prescription, administration and distribution (Vincent, 2001).