Renewable energy is obtained from the Renewable resources; these resources are naturally refilled on a human time scale, e.g., rain, sunlight tides geothermal heat and waves. The renewable energy most often provides in four possible areas, i.e., rural energy services, water cooling heating, electricity generation. Renewable resources contribute about 19.2% to the energy human global consumption industry while 23.7 to their electricity production. Renewable energy resources occupy that large area than other energy sources in particular geographical area. Recently, Renewable energy systems have become cheaper and efficient. Hence the deployment of renewable energy has resulted in reduction on environment pollution which occurs as results of premature mortalities, burning of fossil fuels, etc. Renewable resource involves several energy resources that are friendly to the environment hence making a reliable source of power o the energy production process.
To start with, wind power is the most common source of renewable energy. It is easy to fetch wind and develop and sustain. Wind can be converted to electricity through the use of the wind turbines is hence producing cheap electricity. The airflows cause the run of turbines. The average scale ranges around 600KW to about 5 MW for a rated power even though the turbine rate output of about 1.5-3 MW is the basic from commercial use. From the records, the large generates capacity in an installed single onshore wind turbine was 7.5MW in the year 2015. The wind made power met nearly five %for the global electricity with almost 64GW of the new installed wind power capacity. Wind energy is the leading source in Canada, US, and Europe. In Denmark, the energy met around 40% of the electricity demand, while in Spain Ireland and Portugal reached approximately 20%. The lengthy term mechanical potential of the wind power seems to be five times more the entire energy fabrication. The offshore wind hurries the average speed at 90% higher than that of the land hence the offshore tend to contribute substantially more energy than on the turn-bine stationed on the ground. By 2014 the global wind generation was around 706 Terawatt hours out of the world’s total electricity. Wind power components include; rotor blades, electric generator, hub assembly, yaw mechanism, yaw drives, gearbox system, nacelle, and tower (“How Wind Energy Works”).
Marine wave and hydroelectricity
The hydroelectric power seems to have an ingrained high profile technology. This type of renewable source is obtained from the huge water bodies, e.g., oceans and lakes. Water flow runs the turbines in order to generate the electricity. There are various types of hydropower which include the one that uses the natural river flow or even dam storage schemes. The marine and wave technologies utilize the energy in the oceans to produce the electricity. Wave and marine industries are at young stages whereby they are glowing by improvising new designs. By some years to come, the marine technology is expected to take over other renewable resources and hence make a vital contribution to power generation. Wave energy devices include Oscillating Water Column, Point Absorber, Overtopping Device, Attenuator and Rotating Devices.
Bioenergy is also known as biomass; it can be obtained from any living material and also from the substances like the food waste, bio gradable waste, and animal manure. Biomass is burnt in heat generation and thermal power. Biomass is also applicable to anaerobic digestion process hence making the biogas to be combusted in heat generation or electricity. This gas is also refined to manufacture methane and then injected to the gas grid. Therefore, biomass solar energy is used directly or indirectly. It is used directly via the combustion process and indirectly by converting into various biofuel forms biochemical, thermal and chemical methods are processed that are used to archive the biofuel process. Wood is the remarkable resource of biomass energy which includes the forest residues such as wood chips, dead tree and even the municipal solid wastes. Therefore, biomass is considered to come from both plants and animal matter which is converted to fiber. Hence the component that makes the biomass power productions includes: Boiler, fuel storage area, generator, chipper grinder, fuel conveyor system, and turbine and fuel conveyer system
Solar energy involves radiant light and heat direct from the sun which is harnessed by using modern technology. Solar energy is one of the traditional sources of power ( Eswara, & Ramakrishnarao, 209-227). It is easily converted to electrical power by use of the solar panels. These technologies involve solar architecture, solar heating artificial photosynthesis, and photovoltaic. Solar energy is one of the primary renewable energy source and the technology used includes either the passive or active solar that is determined by the method that is used to distribute and convert the solar to power. For the passive solar techniques, involves selection of materials that have the favorable thermal mass or even the light dispersing and designing the spaces that circulate air naturally. The solar photovoltaic panels convert sun rays into energy. Currently, the installed capacity exceeds 8.7GW and is increasing rapidly in every year. For solar energy: following components are used in power generation system: solar charger controller, DC and AC disconnect, Photovoltaic Modules also known as Solar panels, combiner box, solar inverters and PV module mounting systems.
Geothermal energy is formed and stored in the earth. Thermal energy is referred as the energy that determines the property of matter. It originates from an original area form the decayed radioactive material. The technology used in geothermal uses the vapor power locations binary cycle, control stations, and flash steam power stations. Geothermal energy is measured to be a maintainable and renewable resource of energy since the heat mining is slight in comparison to the ground’s temperature content. By 2015, the geothermal power capacity amounted to 12.8 GW. 28% of these was installed in the United States. The international market recorded a growth, of about 5% for about three years up to 2015. Hence the geothermal growth expects to reach 14.5-17.5 GW for some years to come. Only 6.5% of the global geothermal potential has been utilized having 35 GW to 2Tellawatss available. Countries that have recorded to employ at least 15% of the geothermal power includes Kenya, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Iceland, and the Philippines. However, the glasshouse gas releases for the geothermal power locations average for about 45 gm. of the carbon dioxide per KW/HR of the electric power. Or even 5% of the conventional coal-fired plants (challenges). Geothermal energy includes: first, pumps-extracts the heat from building or interior of the earth. Second, heat exchanger – the piping system usually buried under the ground near a building. The fluid circulates in the pipes to relinquish or absorb the heat within the earth.
Renewable technologies utilize the neutral energy to produce electricity. These renewables provide more than 20% of the globally used power. By some years to come, it so expected an increase of up to 30%. Renewable generation maintains the environment protecting the life of animal and plants. Therefore it is reliable means of power production even though it has not been implemented in in high percentage. Henceforth various institution working together with the governments are working hard to develop the use of renewable generation to enhance good living condition among multiple states.
Hence the renewable energy will develop a vital role strategy to reduce the carbon emission. To archive, this goal, wide range of technologies will be implemented, such as the offshore and onshore, hydropower, biomass and wind farms.
Eswara, Amruta R., and M. Ramakrishnarao. “Solar energy in food processing—a critical appraisal.” Journal of food science and technology 50.2 (2013): 209-227.
Rsc.Org, 2018, http://www.rsc.org/campaigning-outreach/global-challenges/energy/. Accessed 22 Feb
“How Wind Energy Works”. Union Of Concerned Scientists, 2018, https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/renewable-energy/how-wind-energy-works#.Wo6qWHdRUdU. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.
“System Components – Geothermal | Energysage”. Energysage.Com, 2018, https://www.energysage.com/about-clean-energy/types/geothermal/system. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.