Academic Master

Software Engineering

Programming Languages Essay

The history of programming languages goes beyond 100 years and a woman, Ada Lovelace, wrote the first programming language. Later US government started working on two projects, which laid the base for modern days computing. With time, improvements came along and today, we have low-level languages and high-level languages such as C, C++, Python, Matlab, and Java. Before going into the history of each language, I want to share research conducted by Coding Dojo in 2017, for most in-demand programming languages are Python, Java, JavaScript, C#, and PHP. C is a general-purpose programming language used extensively in windows and IOS operating systems. It was created by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T labs in 1972 and it is closely related to Unix Operating System. C Language is a powerful, efficient structured language standardized by American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It is a middle-level language, combining the benefits of low-level language and high-level language. C language applications are developing operating systems and compilers, application software e.g. spreadsheets and databases, graphical applications, e.g. mobile and computer games, and mathematical evaluation. The language implements basic mathematical functions by using standard library math.h.

C++ or “C with classes” is a high-level object-oriented programming language and the superset of the C language. The language includes all the C language functions along with classes, inheritance, inlining, and strong type checking. The objective was to introduce object-Oriented Programming in the C language. In 1983 more features like the const keyword, function overloading, virtual functions, and the single-lined command has been introduced in C++. Real-world application of this language includes games, graphic user interface application, Scripting of web applications, high-level computations and graphics, database, operating system, and advanced medical equipment such as MRI and building compilers.

Guido van Rossum, founder of Python conceived the language in the late 1980s. The first version of python code was released in February 1991. It was an object-oriented and modular system version with functions, exception handling, and the core data types of str, list, dict, and others. After releasing several improved versions, python released the python 3.0 version, which contains print function, view and iterator, int as only integer type, and text vs data. Python outnumbered C/C++ language in embedded systems. A study of Barr Group showed Python is one of the most popular integrated languages in computer sciences to teach coding. Its open source, freely used releases, even for commercial projects make Python more favourable. It is the fastest-growing programming language for embedded systems with numerous programming courses. In today’s agile environment reusability is the factor, which determines the future of a programming language, Python reusable features out class C and C++. With complex libraries like Theano optimize Python code for complex embedded algorithms e.g. neural networks. Python development speed is more than C/C++ but its runtime efficiency is less than C/C++ languages. For improving runtime speed, libraries like Theano and JIT (Just in time) compilers are used. When python is used as an intermediary communicator between the user and the embedded system, it allows the user to automate testing. Python can assess real-world scenarios.

Next, come in line is Java, in 1991, the “Green Team” a small group of engineers working at Sun Microsystem understood that the succeeding trend in computing was the unification of digital customer devices and computers. Having this idea in mind the engineers worked day and night to generate the programming language that would transform our world – Java, acquired by Oracle and developed by James Gosling in 1995 as a fundamental module of the sun microsystem. The Green Team initially targeted at the digital cable TV business and established their new language with a collaborative, home-entertainment supervisor. But at the time the concept was not mature enough to take over the digital cable industry but it was the right idea for the internet. In 1995, the Netscape Navigator Internet browser integrated java technologies. Today, Java not only is the unseen power behindhand numerous of the applications and devices that use in our daily life but also permeates the Internet. Java is everywhere whether it’s from games and navigation systems to e-business solutions or mobile phones to handheld devices. This revolutionary language has many real-time uses, type of applications developed using java are Mobile applications, Desktop GUI applications, embedded systems, enterprise applications, web and application servers, and scientific applications. Java is the best language, chosen by many software developers for writing mathematical operations and applications involving scientific calculations. Java programs have a higher degree of portability, and low maintenance and are mostly considered to be fast and secure. For interacting user interface and as part of the core system, applications like MATLAB use Java. Because of Java’s reliability, compatibility, and practicality, nine million developers are using it and Java’s popularity among other languages is the highest.

Recent years have seen a tremendous increase in information technology research and its combination with other fields to get optimized solutions. One of the growing research areas is using object-oriented programming in surveying techniques, leaving the comfort zone of surveying



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