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Pathophysiology of Diabetes Essay

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when blood sugar level in the blood rises to abnormal. It is controlled by Insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. Body system sometimes is unable to produce enough insulin, and as a result, glucose regulation into the cells is hindered. The glucose concentrates in the blood without reaching cells; this can cause health problems. It is of major three types. Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and Gestational diabetes. Signs and Symptoms Include Blurred vision, yeast infections, weight loss and loss of energy among other.

Pathophysiology of diabetes type 1

Diabetes Type 1 occurs when the immune system destroys and kill insulin hormone which synthesizes the production of beta cells. As a result, host experiences deficit of beta cells and insulin as well due to the presence of anti-insulin. Pancreases islets are therefore destroyed by the, hindering the production of sufficient insulin (American Diabetes Association, 1966). Consequently, glucose is not leaded to the cells. This cause’s diabetes type 1.Addedly, this type of diabetes only requires insulin therapy. Its risk factors include family history, in that it’s genetic from one family member to another. Also, pancreas diseases if available, insulin production is minimized hence diabetes. Pancreases can be damaged by various infections or illness.

Pathophysiology of type 11

Type 2 diabetes is caused by the relative insulin deficiency. Beta cells produced are less since the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin. As a result, insulin resistance is developed. This type two of diabetes is always linked to Obesity which is the major cause of insulin resistance. Therefore, exercise is the most recommendable treatment. Type two risk factors include Obesity; it’s a top cause of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, impaired glucose tolerance is a pre-diabetes that can be diagnosed by simple blood. Insulin resistance developed as a result of insufficient insulin produced by the pancreas. Beta cells deficiency thereby leads to the existence of diabetes two. Ethnic background and family history of diabetes is genetical. Age is another risk factor especially for the 40-45 years of age.

Pathophysiology of gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs as a result of excessive insulin during pregnancy. This does increase blood sugar and state of insulin resistance. The physiology behind symptoms and complications includes

  • • Increased thirst due to high glucose concentration
  • • Frequent urination due to excess fluids intake
  • • Poor wound healing due to increased glucose concentration which provides nutrition to microbes, diminishing immunity.
  • • Kidney damage, thereby control of urine is diminished or eroded.
  • • Weight loss as a result of lost calories in the urine
  • • Nerve damage was leading to impotence as a result of arms and legs damage.

Risk factors include Obesity, family history, age (older one is when getting pregnant).Ethnic background and glucose intolerance.

Steps for prevention

One should manage blood pressure; keep weight within or near healthy range, thirty minutes of exercise more often, balanced diet maintained.

Treatment, prevention and medication for diabetes: Diabetes Type One and Two Treatment

The level of sugar is the main cause of diabetes; hence in trying to treat or control diabetes, sugar consumption needs to be reduced at all cost. However, type one is known to relate to insulin, that is diet changes and exercises (Shamoon, 1992). While type two is managed by non-insulin medications which include reducing weight, changing diet, etc. because it’s known to occur in the environment of obesity. Also, in administering medication for type 2 diabetes, one needs to put into consideration the following factors,

  • • Patients health status,
  • • The cost to the patient or the used health care system,
  • • Side effects of each referred medication and
  • • Any medical issues related matter.

Medications type two diabetes can be treated in various ways to reduce blood glucose level. This is done by increasing insulin sensitivity, glucose excretion to reduce glucose concentration in the blood, slow digestion, and absorption processes to reduce the number of carbohydrates absorbed. During treatments, insulin can be administered through syringes, prefilled ends or by the use of insulin pump.


Proper nutrition for the patient who has diabetes is a major concern. However, there has never been any specific diet outlined for the diabetic patients (Shamoon, 1992). Endocrinologists are the specialists treating diabetes. Care specialists including family practice specialists can also indulge in diabetes treatment. Diabetes one is treated with insulin administering, body exercise, and diet consideration. Type two diabetes is treated by reducing weight, adhering to type two diet and thorough exercise to excrete more glucose from the body. Oral medication can be done to control blood sugar; unless it fails insulin method is initiated. However, oral medication does not apply to the type one diabetes.

Considering Diabetes Diet

When considering the diet for people with diabetes, the amount of carbohydrates, fibers, fats, and proteins consumed is primary. However, Glycemic index is a major factor since foods with the low rate of glycemic index raise blood sugar slowly compared to those with high glycemic index. As a result, one is advised to take diets low in glycemic.

Reducing body weight

Additionally, reducing body weight is a good treatment for diabetes type two, since this does increase body sensitivity to insulin which after that control blood sugar in the body.


Diabetes two medications are done to increase the insulin output, reduce the amount of glucose released from the liver. Also, medication increases the rate of response cells to insulin and ensure delay of digestion in the stomach to decrease absorption of carbohydrates. Therapy for type 2 diabetes is perceived as important. However, there are factors to be considered before this therapy is administered (Vilsbøll, et al., 2003). These include Change in blood sugar control by each medication done to the host, harmful results of the therapy, issues that may affect the patient under medication, compliance like the timing of medication, and importantly healthcare system of the patient. Cost of drug therapy is relatively lower than chronic management caused by poorly controlled diabetes. Moreover, Patients with type 2 diabetes should always be ready to seek help from their healthcare professionals to achieve a better approach to minimizing risks and events. Patients moreover, should have in mind that Control of diabetes begins with a healthy lifestyle, regardless of prescribed medications not forgetting Diet and exercise.

Nursing diagnosis

While diabetes is a medical diagnosis, nursing diagnosis Administered to the patient is required since it helps the patient recover beyond treatments. This nursing diagnosis includes.

  • • Imbalance nutrition, which is related to less carbohydrate metabolic process as a result of deficit insulin,
  • • Inadequate intake resulted from nausea and vomit of food taken.
  • • Less volume of fluids, as a result of less fluid intake and osmotic diuresis from hyperglycemia.
  • • Impaired skin problem, due to decreased sensory sensation, lack of information about skin care and decreased activity or mobilization.
  • • Decrease activity due to decreased energy caused by lack of enough food intakes.
  • • Increased risk of injuries as a result of decreased sensation sensory. Associated or visual and weakness.
  • Cognitive limitations as a result of an inability to remember knowledge based on management of the diabetes disease.
  • • Moreover, ineffective management of therapeutic rules at home due to lack of enough knowledge.

Nursing interventions

  • • Blood sugar monitor at a normal range. Patient has different target level, one of each should be identified, and the patient is taught the advantages of monitoring glucose level. Use of glucometer to enable patient take note of their sugar level even in the absence of caretaker. Patients should be taught how to use their glucometer and record their results
  • • Insulin administration in that one should know which insulin to use and how it works.Hosts do this by following the guidelines provided for the insulin.
  • • Education-based on nutrition should be provided to the patients to enable they know the kinds of food to avoid and why.
  • • Administration of insulin, the patient, is taught on how to rotate injection sites and to clean the site before inserting the needle.
  • • Moreover, patient glucose should be checked every time. Feet education is offered to the patient to expand their knowledge on feet as a result of neuropathy which develops because of decreased blood floor. They should be able to check their feet like every day.
  • • Education on health, fitness, blood pressure monitoring is emphasized as well. A diabetic person had difficulties in vision, kidney and pruned to stroke. Therefore maximum care is required.


American Diabetes Association. (1966). Diabetes (Vol. 15, No. 7-12). American Diabetes Association.

Shamoon, H. (1992). Pathophysiology of Diabetes. Drugs44(3), 1-12.

Vilsbøll, T., Knop, F. K., Krarup, T., Johansen, A., Madsbad, S., Larsen, S., … & Holst, J. J. (2003). The pathophysiology of diabetes involves a defective amplification of the late-phase insulin response to glucose by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide—regardless of etiology and phenotype. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism88(10), 4897-4903



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