Figure 1. Flowchart of the Nervous System (Interadcom, n.d.)
The bran and the endocrine system is respinsible for the balance of responses in emergency conditions for instance, in the stressed condition, the Autonomic nervous sstem detects the stimuli and send signals to the endocrine sysem by sending homones, the sress emergency condition is coped through blood presure fluctuation or through pain, injuryor emotional trauma. The flight or fight response is managed simultaneously through release of cortisol and corticotrophin hormone by the endocrine system and increased glucose , perspiration, increased heart beat and glycogenesis. (Britannica, n.d.)
The Structure of the Neuron Is composed of cell body, Nucleus that lies at the center of the cell body along with neuplasmThe third part is dendrites that hels in the processing of the neurons. it is spine like in structure and they are multile in numbers on a sngle neuron. The functio of th edenriets is to recive the stimulus or input signals. The fourth part is axon. It orignates from the cell body through a portion called axon hillock and is stalk like. The funciton is to apss the nerve impulse. The fifth part is myelin sheath that is protective guard layer present on neuron surface. The sixth part is synampse or axon terminal that is bulb like structure used to send signals on the targeted area. The seventh parth is schwann cells that helps to form the cells of the myelin sheath.
Figure 2. Structure of a neuron
Figure 3. Structure of Motor Neuron and Sensory Neuron
Similarities and Differences
|The Motor neuron takes the impulse along nerve path from CNS to the various parts of the bodysuch as glands or muscles of the body.||The sensory neuron takes the informtaion from receptors/ external side of the body an ocnvert it into electrical impulse.|
|The motor neurons controls all the muscular movement inside the body as they send impulse to smooth, cardiace and skeletal muscles.||The sensory neuron receives the sensry input through all five senses of the body.|
|The motor neurons are multipolar. They have one axon and many dendrites in structure.||The sensor neurons are pseudo unipolar. They have one axon with two branches of dendrites.|
The similarity among both neuron is that they help to carry the nerve impulse.
They both transmit the neurotransmittter to other neurons throgh synaptic cleft.
They both have structural similarity by having one cell body, cell embrance and axon. (Queensland University, n.d.)
The action potential is the movement of nerve impulse along the neuron. It is defined by the myelinated and non-myelinated neuron. The action potential is a sequential process that happens in four steps. The sequence is depolarization, Hyperpolarization and refractory period.
The first step is resting potential in which the neuron is at the unstimulated stage and the action potential is -70mv. The next step is threshold potential. It happens when the cell membrane receives the appropriate or maximum potential for the opening of sodium and potassium gated voltage channels. The depolarization is the next stage in which the Sodium ions enters into the cell and the membrane becomes depolarize it more positive sodium ions. When the sodium and potassium ions distribute across the gradient, the potassium ions starts to move out of the cell to maintain the resting membrane potential.th concentration of K+ Ions increases outside and the sodium ions closes at the stage of Hyperpolarization to maintain the membrane potential of -80mv. There comes a time period called refractory period, in which the membrane is polarized with wrong distribution of Na+ and K= ions across gradient, the neuron in this state will not ract to any stimulus and will try to maintain the membrane potential at resting membrane potential lo generate another stimulus. (Cliff Notes, n.d.)
With respect to conduction of nerve impulse in myelinated and no-myelination neuron, the difference is in the speed of the conduction that results from the covering of the axon of the neuron with myelinated sheath in case f myelinated neuron. And absence of it in unmyelinated neurons. The nerve impulse move faster in myelinated as compared to non-myelinated. The myelinated sheath triggers the conduction. (Antranik, n.d.)
b. the rate of oxygen consumption increases when the nerve impulse conducts a high frequency nerve impulse is because it helps in more ion movement into the cell and potassium out of the cell. The active firing of neurons stimulates the infusion of neuron area with rich oxygen supply. The oxygenation of the hemoglobin in the brain helps in the efficiency of nerve impulse.  that is why it consumes much more. ( Amit Kulshreshtha, 2011)
Events of Acetycholinesterase relase at neuromuscular junction
The motor neuron receive a enrve impulse at the end.
The opening of calcium gated channels occur and there is sudden rush ofcalcium at the end of he nerve ending happens.
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine inetracts with motor plate at fold of the junction to cause diffusion of nicotinic cholinergic receptors.
The depolarization of the membrane happens due to the influx of Na+ and K+ electrical conductance at the motor ending plate.
The action potential generates as a result of the influx and both sides of the muscualr fiber receives the action potential.
The muscular contraction happens and acetlycholine is removed from the post synaptic cleft by the acetylcholinestearse. (Medu hub, n.d.)
Figure 4. Sequence of the acetylcholine transmission (Medu hub, n.d.)
B. the neurotransmitter GABA causes the influc of negative cholride ions inside the pist synaptcmembrane and it will lead to the membrane hyperpolarization. there would not be enough threshhold for the action ptoential and sodium influx would not hpapen. It will theninhibit the production of nerve impulse. (Charlie Cooper, n.d.)
A: Frontal portion
The function of the structure D s regualtion of sleep cycle, heart beat, breathing and eating activity. It deals wth the basic functions related to autonomic nervous system of the brain. (Lumen, n.d.)
B. The anterior lobe of the hypothalamus regulates the concentration of 8 hormones released by the gland thriugh the localized regulation. The changing concentration of the hormones in the blood triggers the hypothalmic nuclei insides the hypothalamus release peptides in the blood vessels. Theese released petides order the pituitary gland to increase or decrease the concentration and maintain it to normal. It is the basic regulating mechanis of hypothalamus nuclei cells. (Biology Reference, n.d.)
The left side of the brain is concerned with th elanguage formation and word interpretation in human brain. The brain detects the word and an image forms on the retina of an eye. The image is decoded through optic nerve impulse and other bundles that sends signals to the visual cortex of the brain present at the posterior sid eof the brain.
The sensory cortex will detect the signal and the brian will help in understanding the context of the words through cerebellum. This is the process of an image formation till recognisation of that word inside the brain. (David Abbot, 2016)
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Charlie Cooper, n.d. Coordination. [Online]
Available at: https://studywise.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/1.2_coordination_qus.pdf
Cliff Notes, n.d. Transmission of Nerve Impulses. [Online]
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David Abbot, 2016. What brain regions control our language? And how do we know this?. [Online]
Available at: https://theconversation.com/what-brain-regions-control-our-language-and-how-do-we-know-this-63318
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Queensland University, n.d. Nuerons types. [Online]
Available at: https://qbi.uq.edu.au/brain/brain-anatomy/types-neurons