Behavioral approaches consist of the theories which are based on learning. The changes in behaviors of people lead to the behavioral learning. The behavior of human is not constant, and it changes with the time with the addition or ejection of some traits or habits. The behavioral approaches include the behavioral learning model which encompasses the fact that conditions improved with the help and improvement of learning. The conditions include several factors like reinforcement. Reinforcement refers to the idea that a wanted behavior could be achieved when a reward is granted to an individual. Reward increased the probability that the wanted action will occur again or will be repeated. Reinforcement is the most important factor of behavioral approaches.
When a certain behavior introduced first, the reward or continuous reward increases the likelihood that certain behavior will happen again or repeated. When a wanted behavior accomplished once, reinforcement maintains or sustains the behavior. Moreover, the irregular reinforcement will also have the great likelihood that individual behavior will be repeated in the future. Behavioral theories and approaches are used in the certain measures like weight loss, drugs usage, smoking and alcohol termination, and anxiety reduction processes.
The success of behavioral approach occurred when the desired behavior is accomplished by reinforcement continuously, and the unwanted behavior will not occur again. In these cases, the wanted behaviors are rewarding, and the unwanted behaviors are not rewarding. The behavioral learning is always used in small steps so that it will be more effective and durable. For example, in a certain experiment, a child is selected for a particular experiment. The analysis is based on the reduction or elimination of certain habit. The selected child will be treated to reduce the habit by applying certain measures slowly on his habits. He will be rewarded continuously when he show encouragement and perform all the tasks or shows particular certain wanted behavior. It will lead to the reduction of his habit, and continuous implementation of measures will lead to the termination of this habit. A similar implementation of the reinforcement on the behavioral pattern of children is effective and makes them able to leave a certain bad habit or develop a good habit instead.
The cognitive learning is also an important and significant part of psychology. It refers to the approach that learning is an internal process. In this internal process, knowledge is transferred to an individual’s cognitive structure. When knowledge transferred into the cognitive system learning occurred through the process of education. The style and presentation of knowledge and information are important in the cognitive learning approach. In the start of the process of learning, children learn and get to know about the details of task provided and the related sequences which are involved in the task. Later on, in the second part of the cognitive learning process mostly known as fixation learning process in which the children are trained according to the required skills and expertise. These skills are required to perform the certain tasks. In this method, specific terminologies are used to enhance and increase the skills of a child. These skills are effective in a way that will lead to the accomplishment of a particular goal, task or objective. This approach is used widely around the world due to its effectiveness and durability. The cognitive approaches are a significant part of the study of psychology and effective in the learning process of the children.
Both approaches of behavioral and cognitive are effective in particular circumstances and situations. The similarities between behavioral and cognitive approaches include the learning processes and improvement of the behaviors or learning. The differences between the approaches include the different methods used for the learning processes. It also contains the fact that both approaches use different learning techniques and measures to achieve the precise and particular outcomes.
The perception of agency is an important part of cognitive psychology. The term agency is used to explain the particular person or some organization that is accountable for the learning or actions which are specified. For example in an experiment supervisor told all the students that they would use the computers for the certain task but they are not allowed to press a certain key. This key can crash or damage the computer. During the experiment, a computer damaged without pressing the specific key. But the supervisor became angry at the student and asked him to sign a letter which will show that the student did press the key by mistake and the computer crashed. The student will agree to do that because he has no other option or he will feel threatened, so he will sign the letter to resolve the issue. Another example is that a person decides to go outside when it’s raining, and he left his umbrella intentionally. The reason is that he thought he could make it and remain safe during rain. This attitude is another example of the perception of agency in the cognitive psychology. The perception of agency is not an effective way to deal with the issues and problems and lead to more challenges and issues.
Pre-attentive processing is based on visual properties. These visual properties are specified in a way that an individual could recognize immediately even in the little framework of visual properties. This processing is based on the addition of subconscious knowledge which is collected from the environment. Its features are based on lopsided and irregular approaches and ideas. This process is quick and most important information is missed during these processes. The post-attentive processing occurred only when the concentration is occupied. It is based on the active and continuous effort. The efforts are formulated in the numberings and its reaction time is lengthy and time-consuming.
The most appropriate difference between both processes is that pre-attentive can get little estimates while the post-attentive can get the increased ratings. The visual properties in the pre-attentive approaches are utilized in the addition of the numbers. It relates to the exclusive features of testing or research. Subitizing is a process which is used to get accurate numbers. In this method, the judgments are always executed to find out the small numbers in the experiments or research. The decisions are dependent on the variables and number of the elements which are included in the operations. The most processes include both pre-attentive and post-attentive measures based on the requirements.
The executive attention is a particular collection of different processes in which the main task is to maintain a certain task or related property, materials or assets. The major task or objective is to complete a specific goal. It is a particular term which is used to define the mental control approaches and self-direction approaches. The attention functions are based on specified tasks and assignments. It always needs a power which is compulsory to its implementation and execution. In this method or function, the efficiency and accuracy are required as a most important success factor of the assignments. The goal is not accomplished without these specific qualities. The Stroop task is also based on a particular goal or objective. It linked with the cognitive approaches and recommended the objective maintenance. The centralized attentions and functions are based on inhibition and the hindrance of working memory.
Object recognition is an important tool in the field of psychology and learning development of the children. It can identify the physical properties of an object. These physical properties include the shape of object, its color, and pattern. In the object recognition after the identification of the object, the one applies specific characteristics to it. The object recognition consists of two approaches including the parts based approach and image-based approach. In parts based approach, the attributes of the particular object are evaluated that accumulate in the human memory. The approach based on a description in which all the attributes of the object listed in this description. In this approach the primary focus in on the features of the object and its assessment.
In image-based approach, a detailed process is designed in a way that consists of the match of actual image and mental image. In this approach, a view of an object is dependent on the viewpoint and the viewer. Biederman gives a more comprehensive approach, and it makes the approaches more simple and understandable. The knowledge of objects includes the separation, breaking down into parts, and its recombination of all the parts. This theory or approach named as the recognition by components theory. It is based on the fact the identification of the object is a topic where separation, analysis, and recombination are important of the particular object.
Episodic memory refers to the type of memory for that is centered on events experienced by a person and includes contextual aspects of that event in a record like a date and time of the event. On the other hand, semantic memory refers to the type of memory that revolves around the perceptions and ideas of the surroundings and does not include details of date and time of certain happenings. The second major difference between episodic and semantic memory is that episodic memory repossession or reclamation is simply achieved by the conscious recollection of the particular event.
On the other hand, the reclamation of semantic memory cannot be achieved by the simple recollection of a separate event. Just like the recollection of semantic memory is difficult than episodic memory, it is less prone to forgetfulness as compared to episodic memory. The episodic type of memory is more prone to forgetfulness. However, there is the presence of more or less emotional component in episodic memory that is absent in the opponent. Moreover, when it comes to usefulness and beneficence, semantic memory holds more importance than episodic recollection.
Both of these types of reminiscence are sub-types of declarative memory which is long-term reminiscence system. This type of system is responsible for realistic and accurate information regarding the surroundings and daily happenings. There is a significant difference between these two discussed types of memory or reminiscence that must be appreciated to recognize them separately.
In most parts of the world, adults talk to babies differently and unique as compared to how they speak to others. Usually, that unique kind of speech is high-pitched, and words are lengthened in an embellished manner. This kind of speech is termed as ‘child-directed speech.’ It has four major characteristics that separate it from normal language pattern and speech.
First, when adults are using CDS, they say any word more slowly than normal. Second, the words that are used for speech are overextended to increase their expected impact on the baby. Third, the pitch or tone of the voice and speech is much higher, extensive and different than the normal way of speaking. Fourth, to make the baby learn expressions, adults intentional put longer gaps between their words. It is for the baby to understand and interpret the meaning or expression of the speech.
A variety of researchers has proved that baby talk or CDS have great positive impacts and results when applied. The child talked with CDS speedily learns to appreciate the difference of expressions, emotions, and speech as compared to the baby dealt with the normal way of speaking. CDS makes the procurement or possession of language or dialect very less demanding for the learning children. There are also many arguments and objection to child-directed speech as well, and this is why it is not used all around the countries of the world. One argument states that there is no need of child-directed speech because children learn their access to speech even without it and most of the times learn better than those who learned dialect from CDS. The other argument includes the fact that CDS is not reliable as the baby not only observes how adults are talking with him/her but also observes the pattern of dialect during inter-adult communication.
It is a significant difference between insight and non-insight problems. An insight problem refers to the problem that claims the particular person to change or alter his/her perception or concepts for the sake of viewing the problem. This change is essential to solve the insight problem. Insight problems consist of several types; however, there are three major ones which include mathematical, verbal and spatial. The basic concept of an insight problem is that the solution becomes suddenly available by changing the perception of the problem. If the examinee restructures the whole situation and tries to think about it for a change, different or alternate way, the solution becomes instantly available.
The insight problem is different from non-insight problems in a variety of ways. The non-insight problem refers to a situation that compromises the particular person suddenly. It does not provide the time of excessive thinking or any preparation. It is just like solving a complicated math problem that appeared easy from the start. Non-insight problem is also referred as ‘Aha-Erlebnis’ in the German language. It is because this term was originally derived by a German theoretical linguist and psychologist Karl Buhler. The same problem of non-insight is also termed as ‘epiphany.’
In an article, “Applying Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development to Mathematics Instruction” author Ojose Bobby is based on the children understanding of mathematical instructional methods. This paper focuses on the four stages of cognitive development of children presented by Jean Piaget and how they must be related to the mathematical instructional methods for the education of children. Children gradually develop with the progress of their age and the development of a child’s mind is directly related to how different mathematical methods must be conveyed to the children at different age years. Piaget has presented four main stages of cognitive development having specific age years of each. These stages include the sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage.
The sensorimotor stage of development ranges from the birth up to two years of life. During this stage, the child has developed the sensory and motor coordination and feel heightened curiosity for the surrounding world. The object performance has evolved so the mathematical instructions given at that part of age must consist of pictorial methods. It is because during this time, everything has the first time for the child and he/she tries to develop a mental image of every concept and perception. The pre-operational stage continues from two to seven years of life. At this stage, the child has grown proper symbolic thinking and utilized grammar as well as the syntax for expression of concepts. However, the complex abstract thinking has not evolved so a child must be taught with mathematical methods involving basics of essential concepts so that child develops a base of every idea.
The concrete operational stage ranges from seven to eleven years and during this period, a child develops a central and straightforward concept of space, quantity and time. So a child must be taught with methods including all of them but not on the highly complex and abstract levels. The last stage of formal operations continues from eleven years to rest of the child’s life, and now the child has developed the abstract thinking and complex conceptual base efficiently. Following and keeping Piaget’s stages of cognitive development in mind, a child can be taught from simple to incredibly complex mathematical methods without any complication.
According to Eleanor Duckworth (2006), the Piaget theory is no doubt is very useful, but it is not suitable for the learning of teachers as they are not able to actively interfere with their understanding of children. He worked with several teachers and realized that no teacher could be able to affect the children’s thinking until they are not ready to develop their understanding and make any theory a fundamental part of their memory. Theoretical elements are not such essential as the developmental ways to develop the understating ways of the teachers so that they could be able to impart wisdom to the children in the most appropriate manner. Duckworth encouraged the teachers to have confidence in their knowledge and help themselves to learn about a better understanding of any process (Duckworth, 2006)
Cameron-Faulkner, T., Lieven, E. V. M. & Tomasello, M. (2003) ‘A construction-based analysis of child directed speech’ Cognitive Science 27, 843-873.
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Ojose, B. (2008). Applying Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development to Mathematics Instruction. The Mathematics Educator, 18(1), 26-30.