ISIS is a part of Al-Qaeda group living in Iraq and known as Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is an Iraqi who lead ISIS. When the civil war in Syria became severe, the participation of ISIS in this war was little. In 2011, Jabhat al-Jabhat al-Nusra was created by a member of ISI, Abu Muhammad al-JoulanI. This group is the primary group of jihad that took part in a war in Syria. Baghdadi and ISI funded and supported Joulani for a participation of his group in war. Baghdadi wants to increase and get more control over Jabhat al-Nusra and want to increase the activities in Syria. Therefore, ISIS was formed last year in April. As the ideology and strategy of both the groups were different which resulted in disagreement between both the powers. As compared to Al-Qaida, ISIS came out as more intense and barbaric not only for Jabhat al-Nusra but Al-Qaida as well. This cruelness of ISIS led to a disapproval of public by Zawahiri. Last month, Zawahiri asked ISIS to return to Iraq and escape from Syria (Tran, 2014).
Due to all these situations, the unity in between ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra ended. They are not on the same grounds, but the idea is that ISIS lost its power when it took over a second largest city of Iraq, Mosul. The area from Syrian eastern edge of Aleppo to Falluja in western Iraq is under the control of ISIS. Today, even the northern areas of Mosul are controlled by ISIS. During the control of ISIS over Syria, Raqqa and eastern part of Aleppo, ISIS showed its inhumanity and barbarity. The blame of human killings done in February is on Muhammad Bahaiah, who is a leader of Aleppo and member of Salafi group Ahrar al-Sham. It is believed that Muhammad Bahaiah is in contact with the leader of al-Qaida. The blame of Abu Muhammad al-Ansari, his family and relative’s assassination who is leader Jabhat al-Nusra in the Idlib governorate. ISIS gave an order of executing a man incriminated of killing; decapitate along with amputations are also kinds of punishment included (Tran, 2014).
No matter merciless influence of ISIS but the flexible behavior was showed by ISIS when it comes to deal with Sunnis in Iraq against the government of Shia leader known as Nouri al-Maliki. On a website of Al-Monitor, Mushreq Abbas gave a brief description of presentation of Baghdadi as a substitute of Sunni tribal and political leaders and restrained preachers opposing central government. ISIS aid its power gathering many foreign volunteers living in Syria, coming from US and Europe, and supposed to control almost 10,000 individuals. When it comes to resources, including coercion of huge networks residing in Mosul, foreshadow the withdrawal of US and economic powers like Conoco gas field was confiscated by ISIS, which costs more than thousand dollars, starting from Jabhat al-Nusra to Deir Ezzor, areas of Syria. After capturing Mosul, ISIS strengthened its place as one of the dominant jihadi group (Tran, 2014).
As Charles Lister said in his article last month “in the Jihadi community, ISIS thinks that is a substitute of al-Qaida and also considered as a challenge for Ayman al-Zawahiri who is a leader of al-Qaida,” Charles Lister is a visiting scholar at Brookings Institution of Doha. He added, “ISIS has become a powerful drive with clear goals other than Syria and Iraq” (Tran, 2014).
General Aggression Model
GAM is a plan which explains how a state of aggression initiate between groups and why this situation prevails. The features that lead a group to different situations result in the state of aggression along with environment factors that boost aggression (Benjamin, 2008). Due to the past experiences of groups or individuals, certain attitudes, values, beliefs, and motivations are created. Researches done on the effects of discontinuity shows that the process of groups is affected to a great extent by the internal factors. Other researchers studied the attitude and told dominant people as a member of group force people to present their attitudes which are in support of the group, on the other hand, dominant people members of outgroup have a reverse effect (DeWall, Anderson and Bushman, 2011).
GAM presents a greedy and fair aspect of describing why violence starts and remain in a group. Models of sociology along with social learning theory helps to understand why violence take place in a group, but there are certain limitations in understanding the extent of powers which effect this violence. According to the socioecological aspect, to understand, why violence initiates in a group you must have to look at the individuals of the group, relationship in between those individuals and with the members of other groups and relationship of group members with the community members (Benjamin, 2008). However, these analyses only give a narrow view of the factors that start different situation in a group, and these factors do not explain the four-level of socioecological model effects the decision-making process and evaluation process that explains why group enroll and adopt in the conflicting behavior (DeWall, Anderson, and Bushman, 2011).
Following preventive measures could be taken to prevent terrorism
- Measures that prohibit both men and women from taking part in terrorist activities
- Giving favorable circumstances to support individuals for disconnecting from VERLT even if they are on their way to, or involved (Wright-Neville, 2009).
- Refusing the effects of terrorism that are in support of and provide resources to design and execute terrorist activities
- Planning and providing protection from the terrorist activities for reducing the susceptibility of individuals in the conflicting framework (Tedeschi and Felson, 1994).
- Following the suspects of terrorist to capture and provide justice to them
- Answering the activities of terrorists to take equal measures, to deal with the effects of these activities and for helping the victims.
Benjamin, A. J. (2008). The General Aggression Model as a Framework for Understanding Torture and Genocide. Retrieved from http://www.nssa.us/journals/2008-31-1/2008-31-1-01.htm
DeWall, C. N., Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2011). The General Aggression Model: Theoretical Extensions to Violence. American Psychological Association. 2011, Vol. 1, No. 3, 245–258. DOI: 10.1037/a0023842
Tedeschi, J. T., & Felson, R. B. (1994). Violence, aggression, and coercive actions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Tran, M. (2014). Who are Isis? A terror group too extreme even for al-Qaida. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/11/isis-too-extreme-al-qaida-terror-jihadi
Wright-Neville, D. (2009). Community Policing and Counterterrorism: The Australian Experience, Athens: Research Institute for European and American Studies,