1.Olds, D. L., & Kitzman, H. (1990). Can home visitation improve the health of women and children at environmental risk?. Pediatrics, 86(1), 108-116.
Professor Olds along with the assistance of Kitzman, an internationally accomplished nurse and mentor, have developed a program for prenatal and infancy, for children and mother’s belonging to low income families. The program is focused towards providing assistance for young children, their development, providing guidance to parents, discussing better options to adopt for child’s health, and being self-sufficent in a low economic condition. This program focuses on reducing the levels of disparity. The program called Nurse-Patient Partnership (NFP) was developed by Professors Olds over a period of 20 years, running it through various trials before making it available for public investment and with the sponsorship of the United States Justice department. The paper discusses the possibilities of evading and possibly reducing the levels of environmental risk that the mothers and children are exposed to. Along the with the assistance of Kitzman, the program has been specially designed to accommodate mothers and childrens from low income families, by offering home visitations to provide better guidance to them. The NFP program is continuously being improved with addition of things that facilitate the modern day challenges for these young children and their mothers or pregnant mothers.
2.Requejo, J. H., Bryce, J., Barros, A. J., Berman, P., Bhutta, Z., Chopra, M., … & Mason, E. (2015). Countdown to 2015 and beyond: fulfilling the health agenda for women and children. The Lancet, 385(9966), 466-476.
The research shows an analysis presenting a clear insight into a recollection of the things achieved by the end of year 2015. The report focuses on the efforts that have been recorded towards offering better healthcare facilities to newborns, maternal and child survival programs or interventions by the healthcare institutions. In the research it was evident that there is still a marginal portion that has been left uncovered and hence requires more effort towards the introduction of interventions that can address various issues. These issues include topics such as morality levels of new borns, maternal support, child care for low income familes and methods to better manage diseases occurring in the childhood phase. The research further looks into ways to accommodate the needs of data collection among samples of poorer portions of population and countries. Since this data will play a central role towards assisting the research to plan out better methods of providing healthcare internvetions to assist mothers and childrens. The research, labelled as Coutdown, has been implemented to closely monitor the progress of the countries and to counter any inequalities that might prove as hurdles for the healthcare field.
3.García-Moreno, C., Hegarty, K., d’Oliveira, A. F. L., Koziol-McLain, J., Colombini, M., & Feder, G. (2015). The health-systems response to violence against women. The Lancet, 385(9977), 1567-1579.
The research grants an insight into one of the most crucial topics in every society while defining the role and the response towards it in a multisector society. A few countries have guidelines and established system of protocols, explaining that even though workers receive the needed training but there still are barriers that have slowed down the system development and implementation process. Most of these barriers have found to be existing in countries catogrized in low to middle income countries. The research includes the report from 2013, according to which violence against women and children was categorized as a major health related concern. The countries that were idenitified to fulfill this criterion, according to standards of World Health Organization and the 67th World Health Assembly informed that these countries had a majority of population, compromised of mainly young girls and mothers that were subjected to brutal forms of violence. There is still a need of major information consensus that can provide a better insight into the root cause of these issues and introduce researchers to methods through which these issues can be addressed in a better manner.
4.Dickson, K. E., Simen-Kapeu, A., Kinney, M. V., Huicho, L., Vesel, L., Lackritz, E., … & Mwansambo, C. (2014). Every Newborn: health-systems bottlenecks and strategies to accelerate scale-up in countries. The Lancet, 384(9941), 438-454.
The research looks into methods through various intervnetions can be introduced to reduce the changes of death and the general presumed percentage of seventy one percent can be brought down, while benefiting women and children during and after the first month. Numerous internvetions look into methods to reduce the chances of stillbirths. The only options that can reduce this, come along with packages that can bring about a positive impact on this matter but these packages have a preferential coverage and presenting sensitivity towards the markers in the functionality of healthcare system. Eight of the thirteen countries covered in the research show a higher percentage of neonatal death rates. These figures were taken under review, to better assess the situation while introducing better healthcare functionalities and reviewing the changes under the supervision of a panel consisting of six hundred people with experities in this field. The portions that were mainly focused on were maternal care and newborn health related topics. Countries that were progressing substantially faster than others, were taken under review to understand their methodology and techniques to help develop an understanding towards reducing the neonatal morality.
5.Macinko, J., & Harris, M. J. (2015). Brazil’s family health strategy—delivering community-based primary care in a universal health system. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(23), 2177-2181.
The epitome of the analysis resides in the fact that Brazilian efforts towards providing a better community based care facility that has been implemented in the best possible way. Becoming an exemplary effort for the rest of the countries, presenting the essentials to developing a program that is directed towards healthcare and upbrining of children and mothers. Currently Brazilian government spends about $50 for every individual annually but the budgeted amount is subject to change over time with changing times and based on geographical location. There are different municipal and healthcare facilities. These implementations have prioritized the concern of healthcare for mothers and children, and the availability of better medical options. Numerous factors present in the environment were taken into consideration, having a major impact on children and mothers. These factors were taken into consideration to develop programs and interventions by the government to help bring down the low morality chances. Diabetes was among one of the notable facts in this study, studying its cause and ways to suppress the chances of having population exposed to this risk, were taken into consideration.
6.Vogel, J. P., Moore, J. E., Timmings, C., Khan, S., Khan, D. N., Defar, A., … & Than, K. K. (2016). Barriers, facilitators and priorities for implementation of WHO maternal and perinatal health guidelines in four lower-income countries: a GREAT network research activity. PloS one, 11(11), e0160020.
Healthcare system often times has been found to be failing to provide the basics of clinical practices. One of the notable facts arises from the possible intervnetions that can assist in preventing low morality risks among newborns, maternal, prenatal, fetal. To understand the depth of this issue and design a better way to address it, World Health Organization along with the assistance of Department of Reproductive Health and Research conduceted a research with the partnershipship of Knowledge Translation Prgram at St. Micheal’s Hospital. The program looked into the methods through various interventions can be introduced to reduce the chances of death among the newborns, the chances of stillbirth, better care of mothers and developing a method to assist children among their first months after birth. Most of these programs were designed after looking into the extent to which these portions were being effected and the possible risks that were involved, in terms of healthcare. The method employed to conduct this reseach is based on studying countries such as Uganda, Myanmar, Ethiopia and Tanzania. The primary focus were the stakeholders, Healthcare NGO’s and policymakers. The study brought forward barriers that were identified during the research and fitting strategies which could improve the overall condition of people in all of these four lower-income countries.
7.Ginsburg, O., Bray, F., Coleman, M. P., Vanderpuye, V., Eniu, A., Kotha, S. R., … & Gralow, J. (2017). The global burden of women’s cancers: a grand challenge in global health. The Lancet, 389(10071), 847-860.
The research discusses the rising concern over two million women being subjected to the risk of developing cancer. Most of these women have either developed cervical or breast cancer, and the factors dependent on her socioeconomic lifestyle, status, and agency will determin if she will develop cancer or not. Most of these women with cancer, belong to countries that either have scarce resources or a malformed system for healthcare. Due to this problem, most of the women suffering from cancer have close to no approach towards better healthcare facilities. The major inequalities that have been identified prevailing in this domain have brought the low income and middle income countries into consideration, towards improving the health and care system, and to recognize their low morality issues. A study into the lower and middle income countries revealed a significant amount of efforts that have been contributed towards continuing the cancer control policies. The paper’s first portion discusses the issues concerning the rising trend of breast and cervical cancer in women, belonging to lower and middle income countries.
Rahman, M. M., Abe, S. K., Rahman, M. S., Kanda, M., Narita, S., Bilano, V., … & Shibuya, K. (2016). Maternal anemia and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes in low-and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis, 2. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 103(2), 495-504.
Anemia has been one of the major issues in developing countries, effecting pregnant women and becoming a cause for adverse birth outcome as well. The method employed to study the effects of anemia was divided into researching about its prevalence in developing countries, studying the connection between pregnancy outcomes and maternal anemia, and the extent to which anemia prevails in the population-attributable fraction in middle to low income countries around the globe. The use of meta-analysis assisted in the help of understanding the level to which anemia was effective in these lower and middle income countries and the impact it held on the women belonging from these regions. The characteristics of the participants were categorized accordingly to develop an understanding towards how much region was effected by it or what could be the possible reasons behind it. A thorough insight in it was provided after investigating the leading issues in developing issues, the details summarizing to West African countries to have over fourty eight percent women in the age of reproduction and fifty six percent women in their pregnancies.