In the late 19th century, new technologies were responsible for changing the look of production, and as a result, new heights of economic development were experienced. For many people, the Second Revolution was a moment of significant change as a lot of inventions were made. The second Revolution, also identified as Technological Revolution, was different from the first industrial revolution as it relied more on steel, chemicals, and electricity, and like before where people relied more on steam, coal, and iron. Men and women came together to work hand in hand to develop new inventions while improving the older devices. These innovations were used in a variety of fields as some of the designs made communication and transportation more accessible. With these inventions traveling became faster, streets safer, construction materials stronger, and household chores became easier.
During the industrial revolution, electricity benefits were universal as by the end of the century; significant power stations were able to supply current over a considerable distance. Another new technology that contributed to the success of the industrial revolution was the chemical industry. Apart from the sudden developments of industries, other significant changes were experienced. Mass marketing productions began improving. There was an increase in demand and supply as many businesses were developed to sustain the market. The American economy was boosted as it entered the industrial revolution era which was between 1870 and 1914. Local products and communities were taken out of the shadow and they had an opportunity to show their products to the world. A large number of people were seen moving from the farms and going to the cities to work. Though unstable, the economic growth at this time was extraordinary as it was highly profitable. The Second Industrial Revolution was responsible for fueling the gilded age. Compared to other nations, the United States experienced the highest economic growth, and as a result, US became the world’s leader in applied technology. Some of the significant inventions that were experienced in the second Industrial revolution included:
The second industrial revolution was profoundly connected to the first revolution. The developing textile industry was responsible for encouraging the 19th-century chemical research that majorly focused on bleaches, and dyes together with cleaning agents. The revolution majorly concentrated on related research. Many viewed the revolution to be a product of science. The age of steel had begun during the first industrial revolution, but the development in steel making improved during the second industrial revolution. During the first half of the revolution, steel was costly, and people opted to use iron. Later, innovators came together to join their thoughts, and they decided to produce steel from pig iron. By the 1840s, many manufacturing companies were seen focusing on and choosing this process due to its expensive nature. Scientists were aiming at identifying the chemical composition of various ores while trying to understand the chemical reactions that happened during steel and iron making.
In 1856, one scientist from Britain by the name of Henry Bessemer was able to develop a simple solution to the issue of steelmaking. In his solution, steel making from pig iron only required less than one hour as compared to the time before which required days. However, this was not a complete solution, and this resulted in Siemens-Martin developing the open hearth process to take the steel-making process to the next level. The open hearth process made it possible to reach high temperatures by using waste gases that were aimed at reheating interior blocks. However, this method was not suitable for phosphoric ores. With time, many trials were made, and eventually, a process was obtained that never lacked all these flaws in Britain. This resulted in the United States steel industry coming up with significant improvements if they were to be on top of other nations. As of 1887, many new processes were developed, and as a result, the cost of steel was lowered, and the final output was achieved. Specialist alloys and cheaper steel were once responsible for transforming and developing the American industry.
The Technological revolution was responsible for the development and the growth of industries in various parts of the world such as Britain, and the United States among others. With the help of numerous inventions, new industries were developed and as the industries grow so does the state’s economy. New job opportunities were created and trade between countries was enhanced. Some nations we see today would never have been where they are if it were not for the inventors who brought about the Second Industrial Revolution.
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