One of the great challenges posed by population aging is the growing probability of developing disability and saturates health systems. It is clearly established that, in the last century, the public health was largely responsible for the increase in life expectancy; for this century, the new Public health responsibility has to be extended to preserve the quality of life and functionality of all those to whom he adds years (de Silva et al. 2016, p.125S). Therefore, any policy directed at the elderly has to be focused on the preservation of functional capacity and autonomy, participation, care and Self-satisfaction Public health has to go beyond the prevention and promotion of health, and it must focus on comprehensive approach and care (de Silva et al. 2016, p.125S).
Main Premises of the Document
This document presents the concerted Policy between the different actors involved in the subject of aging and old age, after a process of analysis, discussion and agreements among the participants. This Policy expresses the commitment of the Colombian State to a population that due to its conditions and characteristics deserves special attention (Marshall et al. 2015, p.204). It is posed fundamentally, a vision of the future with the aging process, and short, medium and long term actions for the intervention of the situation ;Current of the older adult population (de Silva et al. 2016, p.125S)
Policy for the Benefit for Old Age Population
The plan established that a policy for the benefit of the population of the third
Age should be based on the active participation of the old Colombian In the social, economic and political development of the country (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, 2016, p.1530). Defined strategies Implementation in the short and medium term involving municipalities, Official and private organizations and the same community; he prioritized his attention In three groups with different characteristics and needs: No Institutionalized and not covered by social security, institutionalized and Indigents who lived on the street and public charity. Based on the above, the CONPES Document 2793 of 1995 is issued. Aging and old age, where the relative policy guidelines are proposed attention to the aging and aging of the Colombian population, and in special to the needs of the elderly. Even though this document was a breakthrough, it failed to articulate the different social actors in an action plan that put the guidelines into practice proposed and adapted normatively and institutionally to the country (Davies and James, 2016, p.44).
Old Age and Chronic Diseases
Old age and chronic disease: Households with AM consume 50% more health resources than the average; likewise, the chronic morbidity burden accumulated for several years is the main reason of the increase in the cost of care, a lot more than age itself (Noguchi et al. 2016, p.255). The pressure generated by this population for the health system is important and the insufficient response. Of the total number of people reported having been hospitalized in the last year, more than half are AM. Polypharmacy is a topic of greatest interest (Davies and James, 2016, p.44)
Older people are considered to be women and men who are 60 years old or more (or older than 50 if they are at-risk populations, for example indigent or indigenous). This age may seem young in countries where population enjoys an adequate standard of living and therefore health, without However, in developing countries a person of 60 years old can be old and reflect living conditions that have limited healthy aging. East age limit is recognized and used by the United Nations to refer to the advanced ages (Byles et al. 2016, p.146).
Rapid Aging Population
The rapid aging of the population in developing countries is accompanied by fundamental structural changes, such as changes in family composition, in work patterns, in the migration of young people to the city, in the deepening of the processes of urbanization and the greater income of people to the labour market. Of other side, aging leads to changes in disease patterns, leading to simultaneous struggles in developing countries infectious diseases (responsible for high mortality rates), and chronic (generators of disability and deterioration in the quality of life). This Double burden of disease impacts economic and financial conditions of the countries.
Determination of the Pension Policies
Pension policies have increasingly increased the retirement age, without However, in the same proportion, the offer of jobs for People over 60 years. So this group of people enters compete with young people who start their working life, hence it is common find older people linked to working life through informal employment. Additionally, at the end of their working life, people elderly in Colombia, become the support of their families and exercise activities such as volunteering, take care of especially the grandchildren, or children with disabilities Men and women age differently, in general, the latter survive more, but have higher levels of vulnerability. May be subjected to interfamily violence, to loneliness, to be carers and to the impossibility of paid work, all of which adds more to the poverty, disease and disability.
Representation of the Human Rights
Colombian Political Constitution, the international instruments of human rights and constitutional jurisprudence, constitute the framework legal of human rights in our country (Biddyr and Jones, 2015, p.110). Only after 1990 does it speak of the human rights of older persons, expressed in the countries of through normative developments: “Older people are constituted in special subjects of rights.
Active Aging Policy
According to the World Health Organization “Active aging is the process by which opportunities for physical, social and social well-being are optimized mental health throughout life, with the aim of extending life expectancy healthy, productivity and quality of life in old age ” Active aging applies to both individuals and groups of population. It allows people to realize their potential for physical well-being, social and mental health throughout its life cycle and participate in the society of according to their needs, desires and abilities, while provides protection, safety and proper care when they need assistance. Public policies aimed at guaranteeing healthy aging are guide to promote conditions that allow people to have a lifelong and healthy This involves interventions throughout the life cycle to guarantee health, employment, sanitary and educational conditions, promote that older people become independent, participatory, autonomous, with lower levels of disability by chronic diseases; demystify old age as a problem, and create conditions for older people to continue participating in life economic and productive, through various jobs, as well as in life family (Beard and Bloom, 2015, p.658).
Integral Social Protection
The responsibility of the articulation of the social actors for the formulation and management of the National Policy on Aging and Aging is from the Ministry of Social Protection, this is a mobilizing action of others estates of the State, to generate a comprehensive vision of the policy. The Social Protection System is constituted as the set of policies aimed at reducing vulnerability and improving the quality of life of Colombians, especially the most vulnerable (Art. 1, Law 789 of 2002). It uses a focus on social risk (prevention, mitigation and overcoming), especially in crisis situations, and according to the specific vulnerability of each human group. The Social Risk Management (MSR) approach identifies and intervenes threats, risks and vulnerabilities, through strategies of prevention, mitigation and overcoming negative events.
- Creation of an aging culture that promotes an image positive and non-discriminatory of old age.
- Design and development of optional social service for young people as health caregivers and promoters, for the adult and older adult population
- Promotion of spaces for intergenerational exchange in schools in order to take advantage of the experience and experiences of the people elderly and in turn strengthen social spaces of participation and accompaniment.
- Recovery of intangible heritage with young people and children through the old people
Promotion Of Healthy Habits And Lifestyles
Directed to the entire population, aims to develop habits and lifestyles healthy in the child to endure in adulthood, in order to decrease the risks of getting sick and dying, creating conditions for aging healthy and active (Biddyr and Jones, 2015, p.110). It is necessary in the country to generate solid knowledge about aging and old age to improve the ability to learn, generate other knowledge on the subject, produce, systematize, disseminate and develop capabilities in people and institutions to generate capital human and able to manage individually, and collectively, the process of aging and old age (Beard and Bloom, 2015, p.658).
Formation of the Human Talent
This strategic line aims to train professional human talent, technical and auxiliary support in the country the comprehensive attention of the population to the guarantee of an active aging, curricular contents in the undergraduate of the areas of health, social sciences, of basic education oriented to the active aging Equally other professions in which it’s what to do directly affect the well-being of the population due to the impact of their actions such as the areas of Engineering and Architecture (Beard and Bloom, 2015, p.658).
Role of Ministry of Education
Corresponds to the Ministry of Education, in the proper exercise of its functions, advise the implementation and management of the National Policy on Aging and Old age in relation to formal and non-formal education programs and continuing education throughout life, aimed at improving conditions of life of the elderly in the national territory and the creation of a culture of active aging in the country. Create awareness in the population of the social value of the elderly and the recognition of these plans; additionally define strategies that allow knowledge sharing with children and adolescents.
Evaluation is an active, permanent process of the development of a policy public, it is the seer of the management process, and it intends to identify the advances and setbacks in its application. This process is conceived in a continuous, with semi-annual and annual meetings that will allow review and analyse the results of the application and management of the Policy. For monitoring and evaluation, some of a series of indicators proposed by ECLAC in the “Manual on Quality Indicators” of life in the Old Age “grouped in the diverse topics that Politics deals with National of Aging and Oldness. The indicators must be followed by the Health Authority (Municipal, Departmental, District and National) who must submit a biannual progress report on the development of the Policy to the General Directorate of Social Promotion, of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the following table you will find the proposed indicators.
Beard, H.P.J.R. and Bloom, D.E., 2015. Towards a comprehensive public health response to population ageing. Lancet (London, England), 385(9968), p.658.
Biddyr, S. and Jones, A., 2015. Preventing sight loss in older people. A qualitative study exploring barriers to the uptake of regular sight tests of older people living in socially deprived communities in South Wales. Public health, 129(2), pp.110-116.
Byles, J., Vo, K., Thomas, L., Mackenzie, L. and Kendig, H., 2016. Partner status and mental and physical health of independently living men aged 70 years and older. Australasian journal on ageing, 35(2), pp.143-146.
Davies, A. and James, A., 2016. Geographies of ageing: Social processes and the spatial unevenness of population ageing. Routledge.
de Silva, S.H.P., Jayasuriya, A.R., Rajapaksa, L.C., de Silva, A.P. and Barraclough, S., 2016. Development and validation of a measure of quality of life for the young elderly in Sri Lanka. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 28(1_suppl), pp.115S-125S.
Marshall, S., Young, A., Bauer, J. and Isenring, E., 2015. Malnourished older adults admitted to rehabilitation in rural New South Wales remain malnourished throughout rehabilitation and once discharged back to the community: a prospective cohort study. J Aging Res Clin Pract, 4(4), pp.197-204.
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, 2016. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4· 4 million participants. The Lancet, 387(10027), pp.1513-1530.
Noguchi, N., Blyth, F.M., Waite, L.M., Naganathan, V., Cumming, R.G., Handelsman, D.J., Seibel, M.J. and Le Couteur, D.G., 2016. Prevalence of the geriatric syndromes and frailty in older men living in the community: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project. Australasian journal on ageing, 35(4), pp.255-261.