Hamlet from the very beginning of the play, the reader’s interest focuses on the personality of this character. Existentialism as well as the philosophy of existence is a special direction in the philosophy of the twentieth century, emphasizing the uniqueness of human existence, which proclaims it irrational. This “story” boy, as Shakespeare himself wrote about him, suffers from the illness of the approaching century – melancholy. In essence, he is the first reflecting hero of world literature. Someone might think that he is a weak, incapable person. However, in fact we see that he is strong in spirit and is not going to submit to the problems that hit him. His perception of the world is changing; the particles of the former illusions are turning into dust. From this comes the very “Hamletism” – an inner discord in the soul of the hero. By nature, he is a dreamer, a philosopher, but life forced him to become an avenger. The character of Hamlet can be called “Byronic”, because he is most focused on his inner state and is quite skeptical about the world around him. He, like all romantics, is inclined to constantly question himself and throwing between good and evil. Thesis Statement: Hamlet as an existential hero throughout the play seeks the truth and wants to know what will happen after his death, he wants to find out the truth about his father’s death, and he wants to know what actions are right.
Existentialism developed parallel to the related lines of personalizes and philosophical anthropology, from which it is distinguished; above all, by the idea of overcoming (rather than unfolding) a person’s own essence and a greater emphasis on the depth of emotional nature. According to the philosophy of existentialism, in order to realize one as an “existential”, Hamlet found himself in a “borderline situation” for example, in the face of death. As a result, the play becomes for the Hamlet “intimately close”. The true way of cognition, the way of penetrating into the world of “existence” is intuition, which is Hamlet’s irrationally interpreted phenomenological method. Hamlet comprehends his essence throughout his life and is responsible for not every action he has performed, can explain his mistakes by “circumstances”. Thus, man is thought of existentialists as building him a “project”. Ultimately, the ideal freedom of a person is the freedom of the individual from society.
In the poem “Hamlet”, which entered this novel, reflected the tragic fate of the Russian intelligentsia, which, like a Shakespearean hero, had to decide whether to be or not, and choose who would determine her life. We remember that the Prince of Denmark had a direct relationship to the theater and acted even in the role of director of the tragedy “The murder of Gonzaga”, represented by the troupe of stray actors. Therefore, it is natural for him to stay on the stage. In a literal, direct sense, these are the words of the actor. Metaphorically, these words can very naturally be attributed to Hamlet, who said that life is theater and people in it are actors.
The first phase of the text “The roar has calmed down” presupposes the auditorium, the public, its light noise before the start of the play. The association with the theater is backed up with such details as “scaffolding”, “dusk”, “binoculars”, “echoes”, “playing a role”. This lexical series supports our notion of an actor – a thinker, deeply rooted in the essence of his stage image.
Leaning against the door jamb,
I catch in a distant echo,
What will happen in my time?
In a literal sense, these words belong to Hamlet, who looks intensively at the moving time, and to the actor, who plays the role of Hamlet, comprehending his role in the tragedy. Why with all could be, and with me will not be. This is also an understanding that “the end of the road is inevitable,” that “now there is another drama”, no less terrible than in the days of Shakespeare. In addition, the poet was ready, like his hero, to sacrifice himself in the name of his super task-the writing of the novel.
The unexpected treatment of “Abba Father” seems to take us for a moment to the Garden of Gethsemane, where Christ was praying before his arrest. He appeals to his God-the-Father, knowing about that series of suffering that is to be experienced. A new lexical series of text helps to feel the closeness of that world: Abba Father, cup, pharisaism, end of the path. I remember the words from the Gospel: “My Father! If possible, let this cup pass from me “and about the subsequent Calvary -” the end of the path. ”
These verses closely convey the prayer of Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. In the Gospel of Mark we read: “Abba Father! Everything is possible for you; bring this cup from me past me “(Chapter 14, verse 36). Abba is the “father” in Hebrew; Abba Father is an appeal to God the Father. Whose words are these? They can be understood as a continuation of the speech of Christ, who in the Gospel speaks after the words quoted above: “But not what I want, and what you are.” First, Christ asks the Father to let suffering pass him, but he immediately adds: “but let it not be what I want, but what you want.” He takes all the trials of his destiny, whatever they may be, and Hamlet in Shakespeare’s tragedy. Consciously, bravely go to meet the death and the hero of the novel, and its author. In a literal sense, the consent to play a role is expressed on behalf of the actor.
The actor agrees to play on stage, but does not want to participate in the drama of life (as follows from the final quatrain). Acceptance and rejection of suffering and violent death reflect the vibrations and Christ, so authentically conveyed in the Gospel and giving to Him such a touching humanity, and Hamlet. The actor has to play, even when the play ceases to like him. Others, too, cannot change anything in life; they cannot escape the tragic finale.
The Pharisees rejected the teaching of Christ, the conviction of their hypocrisy and hypocrisy many times in the speeches of Christ delivered in the Gospel. The Pharisaic – the deceitful, hypocritical – was the court of King Claudius in Elsinore, where Hamlet had to act. Gospel images, a high biblical syllable are combined with a folk proverb containing a simple but deep thought:
Such an ending gives naturalness, authenticity to the whole poem. It is written by a five-legged horei of the classical size, which Lermontov used in the poem “I’m leaving alone for the road …”. When we talk about the verse size in general, we mean not only the alternation of strong and weak syllabic positions, but also the inherent plex of certain themes, syntactic constructions, intonations, moods. It seems to me that the theme and the mood of loneliness are transmitted in this poem with the utmost strain, from the first to the final verse. Fivefold chorea is usually characterized by a contrast between the theme of the road and the immobility of the hero.
The prototype of Hamlet was served by Prince Amlet – the son of the ruler of Jutland Gorwendil and the daughter of the Danish king Rerik – Geruta. At the time of the murder of his father by his own brother Fengon, who later became the husband of Geruta, the Jutland hero was at a young age, but, having grown up, had to hide his mind and cunning under the guise of insanity. The first attempt by Fengon to bring Amleta to the surface was a girl sent to him (who was in love with the prince and warned him of treason). For the second time, the ruler of Jutland tried to throw off the mask from the prince, having arranged a frank conversation with his mother. The conversation ended with the murder of the king’s counselor hidden under the blanket and the repentance of Gerutha.
The murder of the King of Jutland by Fengon was made explicitly, the murder of the old Hamlet occurs in secret. The appearance of the ghost, which places the son on the task of revenge, the presence of an obstacle to revenge, the love motive, the introduction into the plot of the “scene in the scene” (the play by the capital’s tragedians of the play “Murder of Gonzaga”), the machinations of the main villain, aimed at the “avenger” and turned against him , are the classic features of the genre of “the tragedy of bloody revenge”, created by the predecessor of Shakespeare, Thomas Kid.
Hamlet waits, Hamlet prepares her revenge, breaking her mother’s heart with cruel but truthful words about her betrayal not only of memory but also of the king’s life, the accidental killing of the royal adviser – the cunning rogue Polonius, the sending to death of his “friends” – Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Laertes, in whose fate the Danish prince sees the “reflection of his destiny”, expect nothing: he is ready to put the murderer of his father to death the very moment he sees it, even if he is in the chapel. Understanding that the true culprit of the tragedy is Claudius comes to the son of Polonius only on his deathbed.
The image of the faithful friend of Hamlet – Horatio is contrasted in the play to the “friends” of childhood – Rosencrantz and Guildenstern – who are going about with the king. With the first Danish prince well – he can talk to him heart to heart, ask for any, even the most insane service (for example, follow the mimicry of Claudius during the performance), entrust his life (summoning a letter and telling about Claudius’s plan to kill him); Secondly, Hamlet perceives as guards attached to him, unworthy, not just trust, but even a usual serious conversation. Irritated by the attempts of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to understand the movements of his soul, Hamlet in his heart compares himself with the “worthless thing” – a tool that courtiers can torment, but cannot play on.
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