Academic Master


Gender Bias: Inequality of Women in workplace

I. Introduction

Gender bias is a term that refers to the unfair treatment of women in the workplace. For women, these biases exist because of society’s definition of gender roles as it relates to both men and women. As a result, women experience all kinds of obstacles, barriers and challenges in the public sector. Taking in consideration the gender roles that are give to both women and men from the time of birth, we also see how that translates into the workplace where women are underrepresented in leadership roles and receiving unequal pay in comparison to men. Gender should not be a determining factor in a woman’s salary or her ability to take on any given role, that is the purpose of education and experience which should deems one qualified or not.

II. Body

Main Point 1: Gender Roles and Society

What are societies Gender Roles?

The model of male and female behavior, showing the relationship to each other, to society, the peculiarities of psychological and cultural behavior is usually called gender roles. Representatives of the stronger sex and the weak half can see the world around them in the opposite direction. Often, these differences are so significant that two loving people do not find mutual understanding. Often it is the social society that dictates to the man and the woman the right behavioral attitudes, forcing to make the necessary decision. Personal opinion of a person is pushed into the background. With this approach, people cannot become happy.

Gender roles in society are usually interrelated with religious, cultural, economic views on life, which directly affect the stereotypes of the behavior of men and women. The functions of men and women in family life are distributed according to the gender type. Quite often for the boys to make a final decision, but the true leader of the situation is a girl. The inability to understand each other and to agree leads to ridiculous quarrels and scandals. If a wife or husband feels unwanted and unloved, this provokes disharmony in the relationship. Since ancient times, a biological algorithm of actions has been laid down, which represents the gender role of men as a hunter, a warrior. He has the qualities of a leader, strength, aggressiveness, the habit of taking risks, the speed of decision making. The evolutionary process divided the development of people into two periods. The first is natural selection, which has developed the function of adaptation to joint existence and taught to accept the state of things. In the second period, the pace of social transformations has significantly accelerated, where the mechanisms of natural selection have become irrelevant. The biological development of Homo sapiens, which corresponded to the condition of primitive existence, was suspended at this stage.

The gender role of a woman in an imperfect society consisted in preserving the focus, raising children, femininity, compassion, caring and gentleness. With the development of society, the ladies no longer agree to put up with a limited range of duties and rights, so they are gradually fighting for gender equality, increasingly “capturing” the territory of the stronger sex. Thus, they force to radically reconsider the views of others around their female destiny. Slow biological evolution accelerated development and began to move forward swiftly, supporting first of all masculine qualities. Therefore, it should not be surprising that society still lives by “male” laws and rules that resemble competitions. In this game there is a beginning, an end, rigid rules that cannot be changed, a winner and a loser.

Modern relations in society are characterized by a shift in gender social roles due to a change in the social significance of boys and girls, although in the majority traditionality remains. Women increase their participation in political activities, doing business, and serving in the armed forces. The number of socially significant roles in which it is involved has increased several times over the last century. Men tend to be more stable in their preferences, rarely going beyond the emotional and personal space, and therefore remain within their original gender role. It is still not possible to reach a consensus on the issue of fair distribution of duties and rights between the sexes. The arguments of feminists with adherents of patriarchy look like empty conversations, which cannot be substantiated in detail. The stereotype of a modern gender role presupposes the presence of such signs as stability, clear consciousness, the transfer of genetic inheritance to the next generation. Men find it difficult to change these concepts, long established and established in society. Focusing on the cause and effect relationships in the society, it is recommended to carry out educational work in collectives and married couples, as well as the introduction of a gender approach to all life spheres in the society.

How are women viewed in these roles?

Traditional gender roles of women: “The keeper of the home”, “Mother”, “Wife”. Society expects that the woman will be kind, patient, modest, soft, caring, understanding, “home.” But how many women in our time are socially active, active, working on a par with men, often earning more men?! The miner is not He, but She. In a woman is valued not only beauty, kindness and economy, but also the ability to earn, businesslike, purposeful, stress-resistant, courageous. The most common gender role of women in our society has no name. This role, characteristic of women who are representatives of the working class, has appeared in our society and entrenched in it in the twentieth century. You can call this role ” Universal Soldier” . From the woman it is required to be the wife, mother, the mistress, the worker, the earner, the defender – ideal always and in everything and thus everywhere succeeding!

The struggle of women for gender equality, which began at the end of the previous century, resulted in the fact that many women now work for themselves and for men, and men take off part of the responsibility for raising funds for the maintenance of the family, while not considering themselves obliged to help women to home and in the upbringing of children. A modern woman takes on too much and, “turning” into a man, complains: “There are no normal males anymore!”. The gender role of men also undergoes significant changes in our day. It becomes closer to the traditional gender role of women, just as the gender role of women to men. Gender roles merge.

There is another trend. Men and women change roles ! For example, today more and more popular (especially in Western Europe) is the withdrawal of maternity leave from males (and they do it voluntarily, at their own will). It was after women got equal rights with men that non-equality began to be observed, and roles changed. A man and a woman legally have equal rights, but in fact they remain unequal. A modern woman more often are the Keeper of the hearth (the traditional role of women), and the Giver (the traditional role of men), and the man more often either the Giver or the Keeper of the home. This is what the movement and the struggle for equality of the sexes led to – a new inequality. But the fact is that man and woman cannot be equal, because nature has made them different! No matter how strong a person’s mind is and how much his personality is developed, he is also a biological being, nature also determines the gender role.

Even if a woman chooses a traditionally male gender role, and her man is feminine, there will come a time when their system collapses. This moment will be the appearance of the child. No matter how feminine a man may be, no matter how he manages to lead a household and take care of children, there is something that will never allow him to fully realize himself in the female role – he can not become pregnant and give birth to a child. If both spouses have the same rights and responsibilities, they will be completely equal, there will be no family! Who will take care of the children, if both work? Who will bring money to the house if both are unemployed? Women solve this problem by charging a double burden of responsibility on their shoulders, but by the number of unhappy women, unhappy families, divorces and children growing up without a father; it is not difficult to guess that such an approach to solving the problem is ineffective.

Main Point 2: Higher education and Women underrepresented in leadership roles in the workplace

How are women represented in higher education?

The results of labor and its payment depend on the quality of education and its relevance. Gender disparity in education leads to a deterioration in the quality of girls’ education and their subsequent vague prospects for their own earnings. Today there are 758 million illiterate adults (15 years and over) in the world, of whom two thirds are women. The level of illiteracy among women is the result of gender discrimination, leading to poverty .

The UN calls people who are illiterate people who can not read and write a short, simple message about their daily lives. Earnings of illiterate people can be 42% lower than those of their literate colleagues. However, illiteracy can hamper the provision of vocational education, which could provide higher earnings (World Literacy Foundation, 2015). On a global scale, gender equality in education at the primary level has been achieved, but in many countries, millions of girls do not even go to primary school. At the level of secondary and higher education, this gap increases. Becoming adults, these children cannot provide themselves as they could if they had received a decent education.

The quality of education is the most important factor that influences the development of intellectual abilities and, subsequently, the individual earnings and economic growth of the whole community, this is pointed out by the recently published “World Development Report 2018” devoted to education. Despite the poor quality of education, only a few graduate in high school: 20% of boys in the least developed countries and only 15% of girls. And as a result, young people lack the skills and knowledge necessary to get a job with sufficient earnings. This is the fact that girls refuse to engage in natural sciences and mathematics brings pressure and discrimination from teachers. There are additional restrictions for the choice of occupations by girls. The diagram below demonstrates: the higher in the country the girls’ performance in the PISA mathematical tests results, the less the salary gap between women and men, and this positively affects both the personal security of women and the economy of the country as a whole. Based on OECD data (OECD, 2015) and the World Economic Forum (2016), the OECD’s International Student Assessment Program (OIPD) is an internationally standardized quantitative assessment of students’ knowledge of basic subjects. The gender gap in the knowledge of mathematics according to the PSI method is the difference between the average grades of boys and girls according to the results of mathematical tests. A higher score on the methodology of the PMSU reflects a more pronounced gender gap. A negative evaluation result by the PSIU technique means that girls outperform boys in mathematics. There is documentary evidence that education protects against teenage pregnancies. The longer a girl attends school, the less likely she will marry and become pregnant. The received education brings long-term fruits on the future labor field throughout life.

How are women underrepresented on all levels in public service?

The situation with economic gender discrimination, based on income inequality between men and women, has changed little over the past 20 years.

Throughout the twentieth century, women received many of the legally guaranteed rights traditionally available only to men (although not all rights and not everywhere). This sometimes becomes the basis for the assertion that gender equality has been achieved, and further calls to fight for it are the lot of marginal feminists. But discrimination – and above all economic discrimination based on income inequality between men and women – has not disappeared. In reality, women everywhere have to face two seemingly mutually exclusive forms of discrimination: attaching the status of a “weaker sex” to a woman, the society at the same time “rewards” them with the worst, lower paid and less prestigious work, thus fixing the position of dependence. A global study of the International Labor Organization has shown that this situation is observed all over the world and for twenty years since the last study has not changed dramatically: “In the global labor markets, inequality of opportunities, treatment and results remains between women and men”.

Participation in the labor force and unemployment

The participation of women in the labor force , that is, the number of those who can and wants to find employment, declined from 52.4% to 49.6% between 1995 and 2015, and the woman’s chance of becoming a participant in the labor market is 27% , than the chances of a man (Figure 1).Traditionally, the lowest chances to enter the labor market, that is, to claim economic independence, among women in the Arab countries, and the highest – in Europe, North America and East Asia. These insignificant improvements observed in Europe and North America are attributed by experts to economic problems and, as a result, to a decrease in the level of employment among men, rather than to an increase in employment among women.

Women in the labor market. Inequality. Charts

But even among women who became participants of the labor market, the unemployment rate in virtually all regions remains higher than that of men, reaching an average of 6.2% worldwide (compared to 5.5% among men). The narrowing of the gap in recent years is also associated with the economic decline in industries traditionally dominated by male labor, as well as the need for married women to enter the labor market in order to compensate for the decline in family income.

Quality of work

Over the past twenty years, the situation with the quality of work involving women has improved somewhat. In particular, the number of women employed as unpaid family workers has decreased globally from 19.5% to 10.6% (as a percentage of total employment), although it remains extremely high for individual regions, such as those in Africa to the south Saharan or South Asia (34.9% and 31.8%, respectively). The tendency to improve, according to researchers, is largely related to the change in the structure of the economy and the outflow of labor from agriculture (Figure 2).

Women in the labor market. Inequality. Charts

In most cases, work for women implies an informal nature of work – and therefore does not provide for social guarantees. This applies not only to female workers of family enterprises and self-employed, but also to hired workers. Almost 40% of the world’s women, being hired workers, do not participate in social protection systems. Their share reaches 63.2% in sub-Saharan Africa and 74.2% in South Asia, where informal employment is the predominant form of employment.

Branch Segregation

By 2015, the sector with the largest number of employees in the world economy has become the service sector, moving agriculture from the first place. It employs slightly more than half of the world’s working population (50.1%). The share of women in this sphere has increased since 1995 to 61.5%.

Regardless of the level of economic development of the region, women are practically not represented in industry and skilled agricultural labor. At the same time, among the “employees, service and trade workers” and “unskilled workers”, that is, spheres with low wages, women are disproportionately large (Figure 3).

Women in the labor market. Inequality. Charts

Gender differences in the distribution of unpaid domestic work and work related to care

Care of the house and family is traditionally considered a “woman’s business” and is not considered to be a work activity. Thus, women still spend less hours on paid work and 2.5 times more than men on unpaid work. In sum, the working day of women in developing countries lasts 1 hour 23 minutes more than men’s, in developed countries – for 33 minutes (Figure 5).

Women in the labor market. Inequality. Charts

The need to engage in unpaid domestic work leads to the fact that women are much more likely to fall into the category of part-time workers. The analysis of 100 countries shows that more than a third of all working women (34.2%) are employed less than 35 hours per week, compared to 23.4% of men (Figure 6). At the same time, 25.7% of women are employed more than 48 hours per week, which is especially true in Eastern, Western and Central Asia, where excessive hours of work are common for both men and women.

Women in the labor market. Inequality. Charts

Availability of social protection

Lesser employment, shorter working hours, lower wages and informal employment doom women to low social guarantees, such as insurance payments and pensions. Globally, 65% of the number of persons of retirement age who do not receive a pension on a regular basis are women, which is 200 million people (against 115 million men). In some regions, such as the Arab countries, the countries of South Asia or North Africa, pensions receive less than 10% of women (Figure 7).

Women in the labor market. Inequality. Charts

The social payments for maternity protection are no less a problem. Although such payments exist in one form or another in almost all countries, almost 60% of working women (about 750 million people) can not enjoy the right to maternity leave. And because of problems with the realization of this right, women’s lack of knowledge about their rights, insufficient amount of accumulated contributions, discriminatory practices, labor relations and social isolation, researchers estimate that only 330 million working women (28.2%) in the world receive conditional and non-contributory cash benefits for the birth of a child.


The study showed that the global gender gap in wages is 23%. In other words, women earn 77% of what men earn. Even with consideration of hourly wage rates, given the shorter duration of the women’s working day, the wage gap will still be 10% or more, depending on the region. This gap, the researchers believe, “can only be explained by the systematic underestimation of work, in which women, their professional skills, discriminatory practices and the need to perform a large amount of unpaid work are predominantly involved.”

According to the authors of the report, in order to overcome gender inequality in the world of work, it is necessary:

  • revision of existing perceptions of gender roles that limit women’s ability to participate in socio-economic processes and decision-making processes on an equal footing;
  • antidiscrimination policy with the setting of targets, targets or quotas, implemented by governments, states, organizations and companies;
  • the introduction of educational programs and training programs that help men and women develop non-stereotyped areas;
  • policies to promote a more even distribution of unpaid domestic work, its redistribution between a man and a woman (Figure 6), family and society;
  • the rejection of the principle of “equality of opportunity” and the transition to the principle of “equal remuneration” for work of equal value.

Women in the labor market. Inequality. Charts

Economic development alone does not guarantee gender equality and an equitable distribution of material wealth between men and women.Discrimination can also flourish in advanced economies. But unemployment and the reduction of social guarantees only strengthens discrimination, so the fight against gender inequality can not be separated from the struggle for social and economic equality of both men and women.

Main Point 3: Unequal Pay vs. Men

Will present statistics and data of pay of women vs. men

Inequality in the wages of men and women: an approach to solving the problem in Europe and the United States April 8, 2017 in the US is the Day of Equal Salaries. has learned how in Europe and the United States draw attention to the problem of gender inequality in wages. April 8, 2017 in the US is the Day of Equal Salaries. has learned how in Europe and the United States draw attention to the problem of gender inequality in wages. The Day of equal wages has been celebrated in the USA and Europe for several years already. In this case, the next date for the Day of equal wages is not chosen by chance. In 2017 in the United States, the Day of Equal Salaries is on April 8. This means that a woman on average should work for 98 days more to earn the same amount for a year as a man. If the man completed his work on December 31, then the woman would have to work until April 8 for the same annual salary. Therefore, this day was the Day of equal wages in the US in 2017. The National Committee on Pay Equity calls on women to wear red clothes on the Day of Equal Salaries to show how great the wage gap between men and women is.

The day of equal salaries in the countries of Europe is held on different dates, depending on the number of “free” days: from February 21 to April 25, 2017. On average, European women are forced to work for 59 days a year more to get equal to men’s remuneration. These data are presented in the report of the European Commission “Overcoming the wage gap in the EU “.

Table. Dates of the Day of equal salaries 2017 in different countries

A country Date of the Day of equal salaries 2017 Number of “free” working days Average difference in pay for men and women in% *
Spain February 21 52 16.4
Switzerland 7 March 66 18.4
Greece March 13 72 20
Germany 21 March 80 22
France 7 April 91 28
USA 8 April 98 No data
Estonia 11 April 101 thirty
Sweden 16 April 106 13.9
Czech Republic 25th of April 115 26th

In the USA, the Day of Equal Salaries has not yet been marked. The difference in pay for men and women can be found using the tool “Gender inequality in wages on the world map.” Using it, you can compare the wages of men and women in 23 countries around the world. According to Wage indicator in The USA, the average hourly earnings of men, calculated by the median method, are 18.73 $, women – 15.14 $. The nominal gender difference in total is 3.6 $ or 19%. Fill out the Jo Questionnaire and use the Salary Calculator to find out what salary the women and men of your profession receive. The difference in pay in% is determined as the ratio between the average Brutto hourly wages of men and women.

Main Point 4: Human resource practices/decision making (hiring, pay & promotion)

Gender inequality

When we talk about the poorest among the poor, we almost always mean women and children. This applies to a single country and the world community as a whole.

Gender inequality is the extent to which women and men have different rights, resources and power.

Virtually in all societies, women have less power than men, receive less pay for their work, and have less control over resources, and in many countries even receive lower education. Women have less access to higher-paying jobs in the public and commercial sectors of the economy. When women are given the opportunity to enter the same labor market as men, they often face discrimination.

Although women on average work less hours than men, this difference is compensated by their participation in household management. In Bangladesh, women and men work approximately the same number of hours per week. But at a time when men devote 90% of their time to income-generating activities, women give 80% of their working time to the household. Argentine women work an average of 73 hours a week at home, if they are not employed, and 56 hours if they have a job. This is many times higher than the average working week of men. Economic differences affect the distribution of power in the family. Since women earn less money, they have less involvement in solving important family issues – at least in traditional society, in particular in Islamic countries. Unequal distribution of power has a negative impact on children, especially daughters. The great power of men in most societies determines the degree of women’s participation in the labor process. Sometimes men prefer, for example, that their wives do not work outside the home. Having not received a qualification and a profession, they find themselves at a disadvantage after the divorce and join the ranks of the unemployed.

Women make up 50% of the world’s adult population and one third of the registered workforce, work out about two-thirds of all working hours, for which they receive only one third of the world income and have less than 1% of world property at their disposal. Men retain a relative advantage in the structure of employment, given their disproportionately high percentage of skilled workers. In addition, they have higher regional mobility, which makes it possible to refuse the adoption of the first work that has come to their place of residence. In making decisions about labor migration, men, unlike women, are not bound by the possible loss of childcare allowance.

Russia has previously been the leader in the number of women of working age in the labor force. By the time of the collapse in the USSR, almost all of the women’s population worked in the production or in the service sector. When the country moved from socialism to capitalism, it was women who were the most educated in the ranks of the workers. Of the unemployed Russians with higher education, women make up 70.1%, secondary education – 69.5, primary education – 62.8%. The most unprotected part of the population took the brunt of a market economy and suffered more than others in the course of reforms. Among unemployed women make up 65-70%, while vacancies for them are only 25-30%.

E.Heath, comparing the career opportunities of men and women, came to the conclusion that the chances of leaving the lower posts associated with physical or routine mental labor, using purely market opportunities, are more modest for women. But the chances of vertical mobility by marriage are more favorable for them than for men. As for men’s groups, among them there is higher internal differentiation, and competition for better places [1] . G. Marshall and his colleagues came to the conclusion that in the socio-professional attitude, women’s positions are less preferable. Many of them are engaged in semi-skilled, clerical and service work [2] .

Many women work on monotonous conveyor lines. Women make up the majority of specialists in education, health, social welfare. They prevail in the “army” of office clerks, trade employees, public catering workers and consumer services. In general, the intensification of women’s labor includes:

1) a long working day;

2) high loads;

3) the intense rhythm of work in the night shifts or in the early morning hours;

4) growing demands for qualifications and educational level;

5) greater control over the work process;

6) the combination of several types of work by one person;

7) creation of jobs with clearly not prescribed duties.

In Europe, 79% of employed women work in the service sector, which is becoming more and more a “female” segment. A young generation of Germans can choose professional training in 376 classes. However, 80% of young German women focus on only 25 lessons from this large number, and almost all of these occupations are in the service sector. Although the qualifications they acquire today are higher than ever, more than half of women are concentrated in trade, secretarial work, childcare, sick and elderly, and in the education system.

“Female” professions are viewed by public opinion as something unattractive, unskilled and less rewarded. Women lose to men in wages and in material income. Women are more often completed groups of the secondary labor market: temporarily employed, working part-time. Women are less likely to meet at senior and medium managerial positions. It is much more difficult for them to make a business career. On them unemployment beats more painfully. Until now, it is widely believed that Russian unemployment has a “woman’s face.” The level of female unemployment in Russia in 2011 was 22%, the level of male unemployment – 19%.

Female labor is less mobile. Almost in all sectors of the economy and employment categories the probability of maintaining the former status of women is higher than that of men. The latter, in case of job loss, do not stop searching for it, they are more active in the labor market; women in a similar situation often stop looking for a new job, turning into an economically inactive population [3] . In addition, women’s unemployment often takes a protracted character, which is reflected in longer periods of job search and employment. In this respect, the Russian labor market is changing in accordance with global trends that allow gender adherents to conclude that “the sexual division of labor … is just as important as the class division” [4] .

In modern society, belonging to sex often exerts a greater influence on the advancement of the social ladder than belonging to the class. Thus, women receive less work for similar work than men; they may be discriminated against when it comes to promotion or hiring. At the same time, women perform more than men, part of domestic work and are engaged in the education of children. Among the most egregious forms of discrimination in the labor market are unequal standards of hiring and promotion; unequal access to training and retraining, to loans and other productive resources; unequal pay for equal work; professional segregation and unequal participation in economic decision-making.

Gender differentiation of labor remuneration arose a very long time, but it persists to this day. Women receive only 10% of the world’s income and own 10% of the property. Although in most countries of the world, especially in industrialized countries, equal pay is imposed by law for equal work, in practice, the wages of women as a category of workers are almost everywhere behind the earnings of men. As a result, there is a tendency to reduce the average salary of women: in Australia – 91% of men’s earnings, in Sweden – 90, in France – 81, in Japan – 54%. In the US, a female Negro worker earns 62% of the earnings of a white man. In the countries of the “third world” the situation is even worse. Even in the “moderately developed” Brazil and South Korea, a woman earns on average half of the earnings of a working man. In Germany, a woman earns an average of 70% of a man’s earnings. In India, women’s wages are 51% of men’s salaries, in Kenya they earn 18% less men with the same qualifications. In Latin America, the average salary of women is 71% of men’s earnings. In the CIS countries, women receive an average of 30% less than men. In Ecuador, Jamaica and the Philippines, women are on average more educated and experienced than men, but receive 20-30% less of them.

Not surprisingly, the income of a woman does not exceed two-thirds of a man’s income. The average salary of female workers in the “female” industries (light, textile industry) is about 40% of the average salary in the country in recent years. At the same time, the average salary in “male” industries (oil production) is 360% [5] . In the 1980s. working equally with their husbands, women spent two or three times more time on household chores than their spouse. The attitude of men towards this, their willingness to accept this state of affairs is just as characteristic: only 66% of men, compared to 80% among women, consider that both spouses should be engaged in farming. Meanwhile, 75% of all homework is still on the shoulders of a woman [6] .

The gender pay gap is the largest among the most profitable and highly professional groups. Women still can not get to the top echelon of management. In both the US and Germany, the proportion of women holding presidential office in large companies has not exceeded 3% for many years. Gender inequalities are also observed within certain professions (in both developed Western and post-socialist countries).

For example, in the UK in the mid-1970s. women accounted for 90% of ordinary teachers, while among senior teachers there were 57%. The salary of women in the public sector was about 70% of the average earnings of men, in the private sector – 58% [7] . Professional segregation by sex remains significant in all regions of the world, regardless of the level of development of the country.

In all regions of the world, women work longer hours for less pay than male counterparts. In developed countries, women’s workweek is at least two hours longer than men’s; It is not uncommon for the duration of their working week to be longer by 5-10 hours.

Thus, in Australia, Canada and Germany, the working hours for men and women are approximately the same, but in Italy women work 28% more, in Austria – 12, and in France – 11% [8] . In Japan, the unpaid work of women is nine times the unpaid work time of men.

Unequal division of labor is maintained even when men work only half a working day or do not work at all. In Europe, as in the United States, in families with two working women, they carry a double burden: they work at home and work. In Japan, where men spend an average of 11 minutes a day on domestic work, women spend three and a half hours after a full working day outside the home.

In addition to the fact that women are recruited last, they are the first to be fired. The unemployment rate among women is higher than among men. In developed regions of the world, the official unemployment rate among women in recent years is 50-100% higher, although in absolute terms unemployed men are registered more (as their share in the labor force is more significant). Discrimination against women tends to increase as unemployment increases. To justify such discrimination, it is usually argued that men need more work than women. As a result, women, especially the elderly, predominate among those who have not had a job for a long time [9] .

Women work more, but they live worse or not better than before. Experts call discrimination in education one of the main causes of poverty and underemployment of women: women account for two-thirds of the nearly one billion illiterate adults. In a number of developing countries, such as Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal and Togo in Africa, as well as in Afghanistan and Nepal in Asia, more than 90% of women over 25 have never attended school. Of the approximately 100 million children in the world who are deprived of the opportunity to receive primary education, girls make up 60% [10] .

Modern sociologists propose to explain stratification not only with the help of traditional variables such as social origin, level of qualification, education, place of residence (city / village), opportunities in the labor market. According to E. R. Yarskaya-Smirnova, in the context of stratification theories, it is necessary to add new concepts, in particular social exclusion (an exception), which explains the mechanisms for securing privileged statuses and roles for certain groups of people.

Anthropologists have found an increase in gender inequality from hunting-gathering to agrarian cultures and a significant decrease in it further to the industrial culture, especially to the information society. The curve corresponding to this movement will have the appearance of an inverted uppercase letter U of the Latin alphabet. The increase and decrease in the level of the gender epidemic in history is subject to the same pattern. Representatives of historical sociology believe that gender equality was greatest in the era of gathering. Inequality increased during hunting, peaked in agriculture and began to decline in industrial and postindustrial societies (Figure 8.3).

The emergence of the social division of labor means that men and women spend time in different ways, they have different skills and knowledge. The role of the hunter, who brings the meat and divides it with the group, is more prestigious. All hunters accumulate property and weapons. It is the source of all social stratifications: unequal distribution of power, prestige, property. Some men are more important than others, but all men are more important than women.

Dominance of men grows with the increase in the volume of private property in the family – whether it be hunting rights, livestock, land, weapons, wives or children. Property is inherited from father to son, patriarchy and control of women reaches a high point, especially in truck farming and farming.

III. Conclusion




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