The paper discusses food insecurity as one of the problems facing domestic, national, and global sectors. It starts with the definition of food insecurity which is in many cases confused for hunger. It goes deeper to discuss the causes of food insecurity. It looks in a more profound dimension the proportion of the people facing the issue until 2016 with about 815 million people being victims.
Food insecurity needs to be placed at the forefront of the national and international agendas to come up with practical policies to curb the issue. Statistics carried out by WFP and FAO show that about 815 million people are facing the problem with the most affected being Africans and Asians. Food insecurity has led to people being overweight, underweight, obese, or even death.
There are several causes of food insecurity, amongst them poverty, natural calamities crop versus fuel, conflicts, and the increased population growth. Poverty incapacitates people from eating healthy, good, culturally apt, and enough quantities of food. The resulting impact is malnutrition and under nutrition. Natural calamities have made food production difficult due to the unpredictable weather pattern and the adverse conditions which do not support agriculture. Crop versus fuel comes in as misplacement of priorities where corns and grains have been used to produce fuel instead of feeding people. This created a shortage of supply leading to inadequate provisions.
Conflicting society is not able to settle down on production. They depend entirely on donations for food and water. Due to conflicts, people have fled their homes leading to congestion in towns leading to expensive livelihood. The government and other organizations have been forced to channel resources, which would be useful in curbing food insecurities to financing war and fights. The population is growing very fast than the natural resources can accommodate. This has created pressure on production factors thus causing poor output.
Stakeholders have teamed up to fight the catastrophe. Some of those in the stakeholder maps are the society leaders, government, civil authorities, co-operatives, NGOs, and other agencies. They have helped in agricultural boosting, research, donations, and provisions of farming inputs. World Food Programme and FAO are on the forefront to facilitate programs that will face off insecurity such as Twin-pack approach, Food Security Cluster system, and safety nets program. The article is comprehensive in analyzing and providing viable solutions to food insecurity.
The United States Department of Agriculture states that food insecurity is the condition in which someone faces inconsistent accessibility to enough food caused by lack of funds and other resources at some times in the year. Food insecurity causes hunger; which is hard to quantify in a large population. Hunger refers to the painful sensations due to want for food and craving appetite (Lipper et al. 1048). Hunger leads to malnutrition which can be due to under nutrition or over nutrition, but more inclined to under nutrition. In both malnutrition and under nutrition, the individual does not have adequate food.
Problem Scale and Intensity
Types of malnutrition/under nutrition
There are two types of malnutrition.
I. Protein-energy Malnutrition (PEM): Refers to the inadequate intake of calories and proteins. Food once consumed is changed into energy which is quantified in calories. Proteins are the core of body functioning. They provide the essential amino acids, develop, and maintain the muscles. PEM malnutrition is highly fatal and very common (Coates, Swindale, and Bilinsky 609). It is the one referred to in the event of world hunger discussions. It leads to retarded growth.
Growth failure is characterized by nutritional edema and wasting caused by marasmus. The individual experiences loss of weight which eventually causes death. Kwashiorkor is caused by inadequate proteins in the diet.
II. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency (Micronutrient): Caused by insufficient intake of essential minerals and vitamins. The body requires small portions of minerals and vitamins for proper growth and development. They include Vitamins A, B, C, and D, folates, calcium, zinc, iron, and iodine.
Food security is characterized by the access to adequate good, healthy, and culturally proper food. Unpacking the four aspects; enough, good, healthy, and culturally apt.
Enough: every person requires to eat sufficient amount of food to stay fit, active, and happy.
Good: good is relative because what is good for your friend may be otherwise for your colleague. However, ignoring the vagueness, we have to agree that everyone needs to consume anything that is good. No one should be forced to take cucumbers if they dislike them but like greens.
Healthy: healthy food is rich in nutrition and should be sustained. It is characterized by the inclusion of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and other substances needed by the body (Geissler, and Hilary 28).
Culturally apt: persons should be provided with foods that are familiar to and comfortable with. One should be served with the food they can shop for, prepare, and cook. The language on the labels and instructions are essential.
Food security is correlated to other ideas such as food sovereignty, justice, and equity. Unlike hunger which is physical, food security is socio-economic. Food security is determined at household levels and hunger at the personal levels. A household may face food insecurity if some individuals go hungry while others not or affect them differently.
Food insecurity is a significant feature in nutrition, health, hygiene, and care issues. Many households have the problem at one point in life. The victims have been reported to increase over the years. Therefore, there is need to come up with public policies to assist the agencies, NGOs, government, and also individuals to fight this problem. The paper herein discusses the in-depth analysis of the problem.
Sources of Food Insecurity
Droughts and conflicts are the major contributing issues exacerbating the problems of the food productions, distributions, and accessibility. Fast population growth rates and poverty play a part in creating difficult environs for food accessibility. For countries that depend on agriculture for consumption and as an economic factor, it thus calls for advanced measures to tackle the issues of poverty and food insecurities. For instance, Africa with 80% of the region being rural faces severe challenges in setting the people out of the extreme poverty lines. Poverty lines are defined depending on the monetary terms and resources.
There are strong connections between food insecurities and poverty. Food production is vital since a significant proportion of the poor depend on agriculture as the principal basis of livelihood. About 78% of the Intergovernmental Authority Development inhabitants is categorized as farming. It is not until poverty has been assuaged or lessened that food insecurity will be reduced. Subsequently, the long-term solutions to food insecurities are outside the productions of extra food (Jarosz 175). It generally, includes the essence to address rural livelihood. Putting in place socio-economic safety nets of different types is an integral solution to the utter poverty and food insecurity. Such is not only brilliant in some situations like droughts, but also for long cases needed to settle at socially accommodative and maintainable solutions.
Drought and other climatic conditions contribute highly to the susceptibility of food insecurity. Drought is a catastrophic natural happening that leads to widespread famine once it occurs. However, it is not the only natural hazard that can affect food security. Areas that are prone to droughts are vulnerable to floods when rains fall. Also, floods have been reported to affect the lowlands and plains. They afflict the localized areas even the dry ones. For instance, in 1997-1998, there were severe floods that swept most of Africa’s parts. These were later followed by a severe drought that continued until the end of 1998. Another natural hazard is the threat of locusts.
Drought in Africa is dated as far as back in 252 B.C. most of the areas are dry, receiving a yearly rainfall of not more than 510 mm and so unpredictable. Various parts of the world have in the past thirty years experienced at least one strike of drought in every decade. For instance, there were serious droughts that struck in 1973-74, 1984-85, 1987, 1992-1994, and 1999-2000. Considering Ethiopia alone, in 1984, 8.8 million persons were affected, a million died, and 1.6 million livestock succumbed to hunger (Coleman-Jensen 85). Drought is a recurring and unpredictable phenomenon, and thus there should be ways to the deal with this catastrophe.
The map below shows the regions that were majorly affected by the drought of 1984 in Africa.
There is also the cyclic nature of drought and the rising climatic instabilities in Africa. In regions where the state of the infrastructure is weak, even the moderate amount of flood can disrupt transportation, cut telecommunication links, and break down the electricity and water supplies. All these take part in the production (FAOSTAT 12). Floods directly impact by destroying crops, drowning animals, and cause silts on the water reservoirs.
Drought affects agricultural systems due to the extended duration which spills over to the next seasons. Farmers are forced to put up with late rains or with cases where the rain ceases in the mid of the season. They are forced to plant different types of crops and at a different time. Pastoralists have been forced to travel for long distances with their herds and flocks in pursuit of rains and pastures. Increased population has also disturbed the equipoise between human beings, animals, and natural resources. Degrading natural resources base (more so land and vegetation) has contributed to the increased loss in rainwater via runoffs and soil erosion. The downward spirals of the degrading environment have led to reduced land productivity, loss of biodiversity, and growth of deserts.
Crops versus fuel
Ethanol oil was extracted from corn and grains with the aim of combating global warming and cut down the overdependence on foreign oils. The solution at first sounded viable and worth. However, scrutinizing the issue profoundly shows some problems with the idea. Ethanol is made from corns and grains, which would be utilized better to feed people than create alternatives to the harmful oils. The United Nations Foods and Agriculture Organization (FAO) says that the comprehensive food bills were inflated by 40% within twelve months (Tarasus, Andy and Naomi 512). Competition between food and fuel disadvantages people by making them have scarce food. Diversion of foodstuff could lead to more hunger.
Once rivalry starts in between two states, it, directly and indirectly, affects the others in varied ways. Such conflicts do spill over to the neighboring states as well. Several countries like Iraq, Iran, Israel, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Libya, and Sudan, just to mention a few, have from time to time been in a war. Such have seen their respective central government spend about 10% of the gross national product (GNP) on military affairs. The amount has been rising substantially whenever a fight flares up.
Conflicts have made very many people refugees, making them unproductive and every time expecting to be fed. A good number of the people to be fed are the internally displaced persons (IDPs) who even spill into the neighborhood thus burdening its economy. Conflicts remove men from the agricultural productions and consequentially overburdening the women working in this sector. It also averts resources from the industrious and socially relevant uses and puts into test the will of the international communities in offering aids and donations. These communities, however, cannot be relied on entirely to provide balanced, consistent, and adequate food to these people. Resultantly, the receiving end is deprived off some essential components.
Transboundary conflicts more so in regions where the natural resources are insufficient to heighten food insecurity. Pastoralists experience pressure from the expanded crop farming into the marginal areas and the rising degrading of the rangelands. Cattle rustling and local fights break out if the citizens have accessibility to modern war weapons. Such violence is heightened when the drought breaks in and scrambling for the limited grazing and water sources deepens (Rucha and Abdallah 118). Poor nations, having inadequate resources to allocate to the minority groups are easily prone to conflicts. Any attempts to the reduction of food insecurity profoundly help prevent disputes.
Conflicts, may they be between boundaries or internal aggravates the susceptibility of the disadvantaged people, making them displaced, and depleting their possessions. They make it hard and dangerous for the people charged with offering emergency relief to the internally displaced persons. They cannot adequately meet their responsibilities. Conflicts drag down developments by redirecting the resources, whether state or exterior, far from the development agenda to fund fights. The substitution of the resources implies that the donations risk subsidizing conflicts whereas their motive is to assuage poverty via the development programs.
The world’s population has doubled since the 1980s, and the projections are that it is increasingly going up by 40 percent by 2030. For instance, in the Horn of Africa, we can narrow down to Eastern Africa where the population growth rate is reported to be skyrocketing. The future population increase ha forceful momentum due to the age structure of the population (Riches 56). There is improved fertility and low mortality rates leaving a slim chance that population will decline in future. Family sizes, which are burdens, characterize the rural set-ups with very many mouths to feed. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is also striking the working age people. For instance, consider the demographic indicators for African Countries below (Tarasus, Andy and Naomi 512).
|Dependency ratio (2013)||Population per ha of land||Contraceptive prevalence (%)|
Representing the information graphically to correlate annual growth and fertility rates then yields
Over the past years, the rural-urban migration rate has been increasing, yet the number of people depending on agriculture is rising. Increase in population has raised energy demand which is catered for by deforestation. Land degradation has increased characterized by poaching, to create space for human settlement. The shrunken land resources are not compensated for in any productive manner.
The farmers have to put up with a reduction in productivity and small portions of land from which they are expected to feed their immediate families and supply food to the urban dwellers. There is pressure due to humans and livestock growth on resources which is not sustainable.
Food Insecurity in the United States Households in 2016
The households in the U.S. were categorized into two statuses in regards to the food security, namely; food secure and insecure (further subdivided into low and deficient food security). The first status was characterized by all-time accessibility to adequate food for proactive and healthy living for all members of the family. This comprised of 110.8 million U.S. citizens, making 87.7% (Lang and Michael 89). For the second group, insecure, there occurred a time(s) in the year when the household was not sure of having, or not in a position to get enough food for every member due to small money or other resources. This comprised of 12.3% (15.6 million) of the total population. Food-insecure consist of the low and the very low food insecurities.
Low food security described the homes which would disrupt their eating pattern or lower the amount of food intake by incorporating different coping methods. For example, taking little amounts, inadequate diets, taking part in Federal Food Assistance Program, or accessing reserve food from agencies. These were 9.4 million, (7.4%) of the total population (Candel et al. 51). The very low food security households experienced an abnormal feeding pattern for at least a member of the family. The ratio of food was reduced at times due to the insufficiency. These were 6.1 million people (4.9%) of the total U.S. households.
Trends in Prevalence Rates in the US
Food insecurity was unaltered from 12.7% in 2015 to 12.3% in December 2016. However, there was a statistically significant change from 14% in 2014 to 2015. The prevalence was yet unchanged between 2013 and 2015. There is a downward trend in the incidence between 2013 and 2016. There was, however, a rise in food insecurity from 10.4% in 2000 to about 12.1% in 2004 (Tarasus, Andy and Naomi 512). A slight decline was noted between 2005-07 to be 11%. Unfortunately, it rose in 2008 to 14.6% and stayed stuck at this point in 2009 and 2010.
The year-to-year deviations between 1995 and 2000 comprise of a 2-year cycle which is a resultant of the seasonal effects on food insecurity rates. The study was carried out in April in the odd-numbered years and in August of the even years (FAO, IFAD. “WFP). After 2001, the studies were carried out in early December to do away with the seasonal effects which may arise due to interpretation changes (Willetts and Elsa 256).
Both children and adults are prone to food insecurity with 8.1% of households with children under 18 years (3.2 million households) facing the problem.
State-level Pervasiveness of Food Security
In the U.S., the pervasiveness rates of food insecurities vary from one state to another one. The estimation for the three years ranging from 2014-2016 shows that Hawaii had 8.7%, Mississippi 18.7%, and 7.8% in Alabama and Louisiana (Glamann et al. 1306). The county with the highest prevalence is the Wilcox County in Alabama. Los Angeles and New York counties registered the highest number of food insecure people.
Despite 37% of the citizens in Wilcox County facing food scarcity in their households, 41% of them were reported to be obese! Statistical data experts argue that, if people are food insecure, they prioritize getting a lot of food at the lowest prices (Campbell et al. 33). Food insecurity leads to the purchase of cheap and processed foods which are enriched with calories than nutrients.
The FAO and the WFP officially flung the worldwide Food Security Cluster (FSC) as the United Nation’s machinery to coordinate food securities needs in the event of emergency globally. The essence for more synchronization to curb food insecurity in crises is enormous. As the respondents grow large, the operating atmosphere is also becoming more complicated. The range of responses calls for substantially improved expertise than in analysis, planning, execution, monitoring, and evaluation. The mechanisms put in place should offer exceptional leadership required for complex, multi-dimensional responses called for to protect livelihood in adversities.
The Global Food Security Cluster was coined but not the ‘Global’ to avoid confusion between the Committee on the World Food Security. The cluster system has operated for seven years so far, and a notable change in the elements of food security have been tackled. Before, no integrable leadership of food security responses to disasters had been put in place at the global levels (Grafton, Carsten, and Ejaz Qureshi 179). The cluster was a final upshot of many fruitless efforts.
Hoary challenges oscillated around risk management and tactically correlating protecting life and livelihood in catastrophes to long-lasting issues on sustainable productions and equitable access. In the previous decade, a lot of investments has been made to improve food security and come up with a broader range of ideas for the responses. The prior responses were restricted to offering food donations to the affected households, blending foods for the malnutrition cases, seeds, and farm tools to support farming. Today, there is a broad range of ideas enacted in offering food assistance. Essential stress is on providing cash and vouchers as well as the inventions to yoke the energy in the markets and the private sectors in giving aids. The industry has put in place interventions to achieve its goals (Brem-Wilson 81). New challenges are rising with some of the old ones remaining.
Food security calls for a response from food, agriculture, education, and refugees’ agents. Several groups have joined hands to see the motive a success. Some of these include Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH), the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), Emergency Shelter, and Nutrition Health. Others are the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNCHR), World Food Programme (WFP, and the International Federation of Red Cross and the Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), among others (Kerr 142).
When the cluster idea was officially flung in 2005, the assessments were carried out in two stages. The first reported that the clustering was powerfully influential in improving the coordination of the humanitarian response. It was realized that, in most of the times, the stand-alone agriculture cluster at the nation level subsidized little to the goals of the cluster approach. The ‘food securities cluster’ led by World Food Programme and FAO would suffer from low-slung capacities regarding personnel to carry out clusters synchronization activities. Basing on such results, the report suggested that the IASC establish a “global Food Cluster” to substitute the conventional agricultural groups (Coleman-Jensen 109). IASC was reluctant to implement the findings.
In the second stage assessment, the humanitarian participants targeted the use of resources efficiently to reduce duplication. The leadership roles were made more explicit than they had been before.
Stakeholder mapping has helped design a program to curb food insecurity. Together in this issue are the society leaders, civil authorities, government, NGOs, and agencies. The template below shows the involved entities.
The mandate of global food security cluster
The global Food Security Cluster is led by FAO and WFP. Its objectives and goals are supporting the nation-level groups and strengthening the capacities in planning and implementing proportional, apt, and opportune food security retorts in critical cases. It carries its roles in five significant ways:
i. Providing apparatuses and direction: the global Food Security Cluster shares moving and practical guidance, the tools in existence, and the proper actions of the member countries FSC.
ii. Short-lived surges aid: in the event of the unexpected inception of calamities, the global FSC identifies members from cluster partners to fill the spaces that require rapid responses.
iii. Capacity and information administration: the global Food Security Cluster trains people and cluster affiliates on the execution of country-level cluster roles.
iv. Information management support: It raises the efficiency of the information management systems and take part in the development of platforms that would facilitate timely information dispensation to the cluster members.
v. Supporting the country-level and global food security advocacy: It acts as the advocacy in case of emergency food security resources at global and country levels.
According to the report released by the WFP in 2016, the most significant population of people facing food insecurity are from Sub-Saharan Africa. One in every three people faces hunger. The largest percentage of the undernourished are in Asia and Pacific, comprising 578 million and Sub-Saharan Africa coming second with 239 million (Rucha and Abdallah 142). In America, 53 people suffer from hunger.
Malnutrition has affected children and adults. In the world, 998 million adults are overweight and 310 million being clinically obese. In America, over 40% of the children between the ages of 4 years and17 are overweight and 9% being obese. Asia records the highest rank in overweight and obesity as 11% and 4% respectively (Coleman-Jensen 85). Between 1990 and 2015, the population of the undernourished was 50% of the world’s population. South Asia has the highest prevalence of underweight indicators at 31% by 2008.
Case Studies on Food Security Management
These cases do not evaluate the real roles of the global FSC but are meant to highlight issues that global FSC should look into to support the management. At the beginning of 2010, a devastating earthquake hit Haiti (Coleman-Jensen 66). It displaced more than 1 million people, caused loss of life to 2 million lives, and caused damages of between 8 and fourteen billion dollars. It led to severe food insecurity in Haiti and its environs. In the subsequent days, accessibility to water and food was hard. Food prices rose sharply by nearly 70%. Within a week, five key clusters came to action (WASH, Health, Shelter, Food, and Logistics). Although the response was rapid in mobilizing the staff and funding, it was ridiculed for being poorly planned and possibly imperiling the beneficiaries (Kerr 142). The Haitian government could not support its citizens due to the weak agricultural economy and local market. Food interventions were delayed for months owing to deficiency of funds and inappropriate preparation. FAO experienced postponed funding thus could not timely refill the stocks for planting time.
In Kenya, the Kenya Food Security Meeting/Steering Group (KFSSG) flung in the 1990s to respond to droughts in the country. The coordination mechanisms had developed into a multi-sectoral tool. While habituated to natural disasters, Kenya faced a humanitarian emergency in 2008 which led to violence and displacement. The crisis had never stricken before, and thus the response structures could not tally well with the calamity. NGOs and the United Nations agencies came in although unaccustomed to the new settings.
In America, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is an initiative which assists in reducing food insecurities. It was found to have decreased by 13% by the end of 2016 with significant reductions in obesity and improvement of baby weight (Coleman-Jensen 101). SNAP also takes part in assisting people to rise from poverty for the health of the economy and individuals.
United Nations Policies
The UN gave a mandate to a particular unit, FAO with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of information regarding food and agriculture in its member states, globally, and in-country levels. In 2014, FAO strengthened its Information Systems on Food and Nutrition in 31 countries. Much of the work involves looking into policies concerning:
a. Individual and household food consumption information
b. Food production, supplies, and trades
c. Food pricing and market analysis
d. Food access based on persons’ experience.
It has come up with dimensions to create an environment for a fast decrease in hunger. These include:
i. Better data management in shaping policies and programs. Data collection and analysis assists the governments in designing better policies and implementing them appropriately (Davies 205). For instance, the National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Project helps the Bangladesh Government to broaden it food security vision to the 13 ministries.
ii. Increased political commitment. This is expressed in incentives and financial pledges. The initiatives are guided by the nutrition security data and analysis. For example, the Global Food Security Information Network (FSIN) connects people, government, and institutions to heighten decision-making at various levels.
iii. More effective coordination. Actors in a nation hold info regarding floods and nutrition security situations. Combining the knowledge is better than the sum of individual parts. For instance, the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) empowers the stakeholders to adopt a universal, complete, and comparative analysis of food and nutrition insecurity (Stein 22). It consolidates pieces of information from nations into one system which the actors present in a map.
iv. Evidence-based decision-making. There must be supporting instruments, robust analysis, and definite standards whenever a sound decision is being made. For instance, the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis in Somalia gives evidence-basis of the state of Somali food, nutrition, and livelihood to facilitate the short-term and long-term strategic decisions (Lang and Michael 89).
Data from FAO shows that about 815 million people in the world were facing food insecurity by 2016. This was an increase from the previous year’s findings. Such findings are represented graphically below:
Food insecurity is a threat to all governments and its citizens because people cannot do without eating yet they have to live. Food insecurity threatens the future population which is the pillar of the economy. All governments should adopt policies that are adequate in maintaining food stability (Willetts and Elsa 256). Problems in developing world countries are a real concern even to the developed ones. For instance, the states in the Islamic states like Syria, Iraq, Libya, and Afghanistan, which all have faced famine, have had effects on European and United States. Instability in their home countries gives leeway to attacks outside their areas.
During the global conference in Mexico in 2002, FAO and WFP launched the twin-track policy. It aimed to fight hunger and poverty. It was also to act as a propeller towards accomplishing the World Food Summit agendas and targets. It targeted rural residents who majorly depend on agriculture as a source of livelihood. It was to boost the level of employment and pension benefits. They focused provision of food in schools as also a way of wooing more learners.
In Eastern Africa, Southern Asia, and America, agencies have come up with co-operatives to boost the accessibility of farm inputs, credit facilities, and ready market for fruits, vegetables, and other foodstuff. These associations are reported to be doing positively in Guatemala where farmers have helped improve nutritional state and healthcare conditions.
Many governments have joined hands in the ‘safety nets’ program whose aim is to transfer resources to the poverty-stricken and food-insecure citizens. The poor are being trained on how to manage risks, cope with hardships, and cope with policies like trade liberalization, boost livings, and investments. The policy emphasizes on Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT) and Public Works Employment for all.
Scope for Doing More and Better (Recommendations)
For FAO, World Food Programme, and other stakeholders to do more and better in eradicating food insecurity, they need to improve on some areas like:
a. Better systems: there is need to support the enhancement of the national systems to increase the flow of data and information across the actors. Global level support sectors like the FSIN, IPC, and Global Partnership can ensure rationality and offer capacity developments.
b. Better data: Should support countries to enhance their food security and nutrition indicators executed out by “Voices of the Hungry” projects, the global database of individual food consumption or methods of designing sensitive food insecurity indicators.
c. Improved capacity: Should promote the development of human and institutional capacities to monitor and analysis.
d. Harmonize standards: there is a call to assess the relations between food security and climate changes and the food Price Web Portal.
e. Better communication: the actors should allow analysts to communicate their findings in a good way to the decision-makers, with minimal external influence. Various stakeholders will then be better placed to improve and analyze data to give timely inputs to the decisions being made.
Despite the abundant food supply in the world, food insecurity is elusive. Food supplies are allotted to the retailers by market forces but many families are living below the poverty line to afford it. This brings about chronic hunger which can be eradicated by ending poverty. Conflicts, displacement, and urbanization raise the number of dependents threating the availability in the market. FAO and WFP need a lot of support from governments and institutions to tackle this catastrophe which is unpredictable.
Brem-Wilson, Josh. “Towards food sovereignty: interrogating peasant voice in the United Nations Committee on World Food Security.” Journal of Peasant Studies 42.1 (2015): 73-95.
Campbell, Bruce M., et al. “Reducing risks to food security from climate change.” Global Food Security 11 (2016): 34-43.
Candel, Jeroen JL, et al. “Disentangling the consensus frame of food security: the case of the EU Common Agricultural Policy reform debate.” Food Policy 44 (2014): 47-58.
Coates, J., A. Swindale, and P. Bilinsky. “Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of household food access: indicator guide (v. 3). 2007.” Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development (2016).
Coleman-Jensen, Alisha, Christian Gregory, and Anita Singh. “Household food security in the United States in 2013.” (2014).
Davies, Susanna. Adaptable livelihoods: Coping with food insecurity in the Malian Sahel. Springer, 2016.
FAO, IFAD. “WFP (2015), The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress.” Food and Agriculture Organization Publications, Rome (2016).
FAOSTAT, Food. “Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistics Division.” Economic and Social Development Department, Rome, Italy. http://faostat3. fao. org/home/E. Accessed 12 (2016).
Geissler, Catherine, and Hilary Powers, eds. Human nutrition. Oxford University Press, 2017.
Glamann, Josefine, et al. “The intersection of food security and biodiversity conservation: a review.” Regional Environmental Change 17.5 (2017): 1303-1313.
Grafton, R. Quentin, Carsten Daugbjerg, and M. Ejaz Qureshi. “Towards food security by 2050.” Food Security 7.2 (2015): 179-183.
Jarosz, Lucy. “Comparing food security and food sovereignty discourses.” Dialogues in Human Geography 4.2 (2014): 168-181.
Kerr, William A. “Food Security and Anti-Piracy Strategies: The Economics of Protecting World Food Program Shipments.” Food Security in an Uncertain World: An International Perspective. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015. 145-159.
Lang, Tim, and Michael Heasman. Food wars: the global battle for mouths, minds and markets. Routledge, 2015.
Lipper, Leslie, et al. “Climate-smart agriculture for food security.” Nature Climate Change 4.12 (2014): 1068.
Riches, Graham, ed. First world hunger: Food security and welfare politics. Springer, 2016.
Rucha, Kingsford M., and Amina Nassor Abdallah. “Effect of Supplier Relationship Management on Humanitarian Supply Chain Performance at the World Food Programme in Somalia.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ 13.16 (2017).
Stein, Alana. “Power Play at the United Nations: The Effects of Added Stakeholders in the Committee on World Food Security.” Pursuit-The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee 7.1 (2016): 22.
Tarasuk, Valerie, Andy Mitchell, and Naomi Dachner. Household food insecurity in Canada, 2012. Research to identify policy options to reduce food insecurity, 2016.
Willetts, Liz, and Elsa Tsioumani. “World food security.” Environmental Policy and Law 45.6 (2015): 256.