GMO stands for genetically modified organism. The organism of any material whether plants or food are changed with this method. GMO is done by using methods specified in the genetic engineering. This type of engineering changes the behavior of the things. Many people and scientists have discovered that this method is of great use these days. Its extensive use is found in medicines being manufactured these days. Nowadays much different kind of foods is being made with the genetically modified organism. These are some of the applications of GMO however; the application is not restricted to food and medicines only. Its application is varied.
These days, several different scientists are working on the findings and the research of (GMO) Genetically Modified Organisms to solve the problems associated with them and making it acceptable all around the globe. There is a certain kind of genetically modified organism which is known as the transgenic organism and it is under consideration nowadays. Bioengineered food is another name for these genetically modified foods, and such foods also contain the system of creating a variation in their DNA via the techniques of genetic engineering. During 1994, this trend was initiated, and it was the time when the GMO foods were commercially introduced to sell for the first time.
Since the very beginning, the focus of GMO food has always been on the cash crops. Cotton, canola, corn and soya bean are main cash crops. Many of the researchers have stated that this food is not good for the health of the people eating it. List of harm caused by genetically modified organism food is quite long. Papaya, cotton, corn, and several of the other dairy products are named in this list of dangerous GMO foods. Every country has its own rules and legal actions regarding the sale and purchase of these foods. However, in some of the countries, these food products are forbidden owing to their negative effects and harmful impacts while in others, there are no restrictions. Whereas, the concerns for these food items only arise because of their devastating consequences and its associated research techniques. Several effects came forward regarding the use of these GMO products which directly deteriorates the person’s health and is quite damaging. These GMO foods became the reason for food allergies, increase in toxicity and caused an acceleration in resistance against the germs and bacteria. Whereas, these factual statements have been proved by several studies and practical experiments. Jeffrey Smith stated some facts about GMO foods in 2003,
“Several studies indicate serious health risks associated with genetically modified (GM) food including immune problems, accelerated aging, faulty insulin regulation, and changes in major organs and the gastrointestinal system. The AAEM has asked physicians to advise all patients to avoid GM foods” (Jeffrey Smith, 2003)
Recent researches have shown that allergy is one of the effects of the GMO food. Almost two percent of the adults and five percent of the children are becoming a victim of the allergy caused by the GMO food. Commonly, people against GMO food give a common reason for this that whenever people try to make changes in the natural things created by Almighty, then they will have to face the consequences of it. There are many risks involved in it. The gene may get in the wrong place rather changing the gene it was supposed to do. As regards the GMO foods, an inoffensive protein goes in which triggers the immune system to respond the food. An experiment was done with the works of the village demonstrated the procedure about how these genetically modified foods can turn out to be disastrous for human beings. A few laborers among the Agricultural side were asked to load or pick the Bt cotton which is a cotton variety of (GMO) Genetically Modified Organism, which is used to produce the insecticide for bollworm, and they claimed of suffering from several different allergies. (Bernstein et al., 2003) Some of them suffered from skin allergy while others had to bear eyes allergy. Some even became the victims if reactions on upper respiratory tract.
Being toxic means being poisonous and this is amongst the greatest problems found in the genetically modified edibles. Although there are some plants whose produce is at such low levels of toxicity to be considered safe for human consumption, production of many other plants has been found to be toxic to human health. The main problem occurs when low toxicity producing plants come in connection with any toxin genes. This triggers the chemical processes which increases the toxicity to such levels which are considered harmful for the human consumption. This mechanism is a high-risk genetic methodology. To explain it further, for example, a plants behavior towards the production of toxins can be different, if, a gene otherwise considered useful, is inserted into said plant and that negatively interacts with the first genes of this plant.
To study the reaction of living beings to Genetically engineered food, a great number of laboratory experiments have been conducted. One such experiment involved the feeding of GM potatoes to rodents. Scientific and biological evaluations of the results were in conformity of the assumption – toxic nature of GM food. It was discovered that all the rodents developed some precancerous cells and also registered abnormal growth. This was the effect of consumption of GM food. It is believed that such food could have greatly affected the brain of rodents.
Consumption of GM tomatoes in rodents leads to even more disastrous results. Some rodents were found to be bleeding while eating the tomatoes while other simply died. Since rodents are believed to have similar biological functionality as human beings, disastrous results of consumption of GM foods can be applied to human as well. The degree of severity of results, however, can be subject to some debate.
Resistance to antibiotics is one of the major risk factors associated with the GM foods. Many scientists are concerned about the resistance which is displayed by bacterial strains towards the effects of antibiotics. Since the number of bacteria showing resistance against the antibiotics is increasing day by day, this has become a cause of great concern for scientists.
Natural mutation is a mutation which occurs due to natural reasons without the induction of any mutagen. This natural mutation is believed to have lead bacteria towards the development of resistance against antibiotic by way of development of certain genes which are of the resistant type. While inserting new genes into the plants, biotechnologists use antibiotics resistance genes as selectable markets. (Bakshi, 2003)
At the very initial stage, while the experiments were being done, the scientists did not know about the type of behavior that will be displayed by the plants. The behavior was keenly observed after attaching such resistance genes. Consequently, the survival of the plant demonstrates that they have taken the resistance and on the other hand the stronger growth of the bacteria is the answer when the resistance has not been taken. The latter case is being observed these days frequently where the bacteria is getting mighty where the resistance genes are not successfully stopping them because the genetic modification is now stronger and caused the anti-resistance.
To close there are a lot of hazard factors incorporated into the admission of genetically modified food some have sound proof for them while some are limited to the possible confirmation. In any case, the most dangerous ones are expressed that incorporate nourishment sensitivity, particularly in infant and children, Antibiotic resistance and the abatement in supplements. The researchers nowadays are working so as to determine these issues.
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