Essential Features of New Industrial System
In modern history, the revolution is the process of change from a handicraft system to an economy that industries and machines dominate. During the era, Europe shifted from the large labor economy to a vast capital economy. The main features involved in the newly introduced system were technological, cultural and socioeconomic factors. In the Technological sectors, the changes required the use of raw materials like steel and iron. During the industrial revolution, many people used new energy sources that included fuels and steam, electricity and petroleum. Coal and steam enabled the running of the machines such as spinning jenny that increased the rate of production. The inventions like the flying shuttle allowed people to weave faster hence a double output. As a result, factories required little human energy during labor. Also, the revolution characterized by a new system of work commonly known as the factory system. The system entailed a more advanced division of labor and specialization.
Moreover, there were significant developments in the transport and communication sector. Notably, steam locomotives, airplanes, radio, and steamship were some of the means of communication and transportation. James’s first steam engine further led to the development of the George Stephenson’s Rocket. As a result, many more great inventions came in.
Effects of the new system
Although industrial revolution spread after many decades, the system uniquely changed the Europeans lifestyle. The new system had a long-lasting impact on the urbanization, social aspects, family unit life and the living standards of Europeans. The growth of large factories encouraged the people to migrate to urban areas. The population of cities in turn increased. The availability of labor caused the shift from the countryside to the cities. The urban life further experienced child labor and unsafe working conditions in the factory. The act later led to the creation of reform movements.
Due to the population increase in the urban, the living conditions became so horrible although the death rates went down. The prosperous people proved to be better than the workers who worked in the industries. Most of the factory workers were extremely dirty with the cities being much dirty. The living conditions were therefore not appealing since the sanitary states in the early industrial cities were much filthy. The Municipal government was not concerned with cleanliness hence the towns lacked proper disposal of wastes. Also, burning of coal of the factories made the cities to coat living air, water, and the entire surrounding polluted. The situation affected both the urban leading to lower living standards.
Moreover, families experienced problems following the industrial revolution. In most cases, women and men who are the key providers often worked without pay. Sadly enough, even the children had to spend many hours working but later get a little pay hence it is somehow cheap labor. Most families did not have time to eat as well as even food itself. Families began worrying about cholera and various deadly diseases which could affect them as a result of unhealthy hygiene. The fear led to the formation of National Board of Health. Social class also changed as a result of the revolution. The workers in the factories formed the majority of working class. The rise of the wealthy middle class who owned factories and machines and market and the industrial working class transformed traditional social relationships in Europe.
In conclusion, despite the increase in employment and the production rates the features of the new industrial system ensured, labor life made the conditions worse for the families.