Epigenetics – Our biology and the Environment
Epigenetics is the vast study of the modifications which occurred in gene expressions. There are many causes of the gene expression modifications. Scientists have discovered a lot many ways through which the genetic structures and the endogenous human development are affected. One of the most concerning factors is the environment and the surrounding in which an individual lives. Disease resistance, daily routines, diet, stress, chemicals, and the atmosphere could be included afterward. The main aim of the paper is to discuss how the environment influences human biology.
The organism located in the environment directly affects the development as well as nourishment of the human as well as indirectly affects the genes of the body. There are not only external factors that could cause gene modification but also internal factors as well. In a discussion of the discoveries made and under progress which is concluding that the environment has a great role in human biology. There are a number of reports and discussions being made which have finalized that the external environment affects the genes and the way the body deals with the disease.
It is observed that light and temperature are the most common factors which influence human biology. Their bodies’ color changes, as well as the body metabolism, also works differently and epigenetics also discusses these things in a similar way.
According to the current studies, the change in DNA is evolutionary and it takes a century or even more to change. Human biology could be changed in contrast accordingly. According to the analysis, most of the structural changes will result in very slight changes in gene activity. Switching the genes will also result in the dramatic effects. Sometimes the effects are shown and sometimes hidden. There are many reactions of the genes in which the most concern is that the triggering chemical changes would definitely result in the activation of the function of the gene or maybe the active genes could become silent.
The changes in the environmental, developmental, and social circumstances also result in the changing of a number of RNA functional regulations. Stress is an external factor and is caused due to the environment around us. It affects human biology in a lot many ways but in epigenetics, it affects the brain and expectancy of life. A study has shown that the individuals who possess more stress have a higher expectancy of living lesser than comparatively the people who don’t have stress or feel very less about it.
There are some slight changes that occurred in the individuals like a disease or a disability and its expectation of transferring is relatively higher than that of the diseases which are transferred through contact. It can be explained that the parents who have hemophilia, their children will more likely have the same disease but in a complex form in which they would require continuous blood changes or their life expectancy would be decreased to a few days.
In a nutshell, it can be explained that the environment changes human biology and the effects could be sometimes beneficial and sometimes adverse. There are a number of different ways which are considered as the most active in changing the human biology in which the most prominent are the drugs, chemicals, air, pollution, temperature, adults, stress, weather, and even injuries. So the final finding of many types of research is that there are many responses of the genes in which the utmost alarm is that the activating chemical changes would definitely result in the initiation of the function of the gene or might the active genes could become silent. The changes in the process of the human gene is lifetime and mostly unconcerned by the individual itself.
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Hur, Suzy SJ, Jennifer E. Cropley, and Catherine M. Suter. “Paternal epigenetic programming: evolving metabolic disease risk.” Journal of molecular endocrinology 58.3 (2017): R159-R168.
Meaney, Michael J. “Epigenetics and the biology of gene× environment interactions.” Gene-Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology. Springer, Cham, 2017. 59-94.
Strazzullo, Maria, and Maria Rosaria Matarazzo. “Epigenetic effects of environmental chemicals on reproductive biology.” Current drug targets 18.10 (2017): 1116-1124.