# Doppler Effect Pre-Lab Assignment

Another standard candle can be RR lyraes. A standard candle can be described as an astronomical object that has a calculated and absolute magnitude. The standard candles are important because they act as a reference to the other objects for which astronomers need to measure the distance. The absolute magnitude of standard candles is determined by the variability period.

Doppler effect involves the movement of waves and how we perceive them. In our daily life, there are several instances that are an example of the Doppler effect due to the travelling of sound waves; for instance, when we hear an ambulance waiting at the stoplight, we hear it differently when it is speeding towards the car, and when it has sped away or ahead of the car. Its pitch changes, and the wave distance changes as well. This is a classic example of the Doppler effect.

To calculate the redshift of the galaxy, we have:

1. Z = ?
2. V = speed of galaxy = 3% of the speed of light = 8993773.74 m/s
3. C = speed of light = 299 792 458 m/s

Now we have:

Z = v/c = 0.03

The redshift will be 0.03.

1. For calculating redshift, we have:

Z = 589-552 / 552

Z = 0.067 (redshift)

#### References

Madau, P., Ferguson, H. C., Dickinson, M. E., Giavalisco, M., Steidel, C. C., & Fruchter, A. (1996). High-redshift galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field: colour selection and star formation history to z∼ 4. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society283(4), 1388-1404.

Cohen, J. G., Hogg, D. W., Blandford, R., Cowie, L. L., Hu, E., Songaila, A., … & Richberg, K. (2000). Caltech faint galaxy redshift survey. X. A redshift survey in the region of the Hubble deep field north. The Astrophysical Journal538(1), 29.

Arnouts, S., Cristiani, S., Moscardini, L., Matarrese, S., Lucchin, F., Fontana, A., & Giallongo, E. (1999). Measuring and modelling the redshift evolution of clustering: the Hubble Deep Field North. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society310(2), 540-556.

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