Academic Master


Describe the Psychopathology of Presenting Complaint in the Case Study


Appendicitis is a disease that is caused by the blockage that may occur from infection, since the appendix may swell due to any infection in the body. The basic function of the appendix is unknown but still if it swells it can burst, and if severe it can cause the death of the patient. This case study strives to explain the psychopathology and the presentations on major clinical appendicitis by considering the scenario of Anne a ten years old girl who is diagnosed with appendicitis (Wiener et al., 2015). Appendicitis is defined as the inflammation in the inner side of the appendix that can spread to other parts of the body as well; it can be caused by a variety of things. Obstruction in the appendix can cause an increase in the pressure inside the lumen. This increase in pressure can cause many fluids to secrete that as mucus etc.

The bacteria within the intestine multiply, this leads to the screening of white blood cells and the generation of pus. This can cause more increase in the pressure within the inside line of the appendix and lumen which will cause the overflow of obtrusion. So to cure appendicitis the only cure is to remove the appendix from the body, if it is not removed in time, it can be very hazardous and can even kill a man. The girls of 10 years Anne was brought to the emergency unit in the nearby local hospital with pain on the right side of the belly. When the emergency attendant observed her condition, then it was suspected that the girls are suffering from appendicitis. They took Anne to the operation theatre for the further proceedings of operation. The operation to operate on appendicitis is known as an appendectomy. The team of surgeons found the perforated appendix which was infected by peritonitis; they handed it over to the ward. Anne was transferred to the ward with the tube being installed in her body, and with different antibiotics and morphine. The girl was admitted to the hospital for the next ten days for her critical condition due to bacterial infection (Rimmer et al., 2015).

Evaluation of the nurse’s role to deliver developmentally appropriate nursing care in your chosen case study.

Nurses play an important role in observing and managing the symptoms to decrease the effect of disease and other complications. To carry on all the processes the nurse should understand the pathophysiology of the disease and she should have an overview of all the previous patients’ conditions and the patients’ backgrounds regarding their health. All the developmental stages, health conditions, age, and various other health regarding factors would help nurses in patient-centered care. Children’s physical maturity and development are different from those of teenagers which influences the healing and medication process. As mentioned in the case study that the girl is 10y years old and thus comes in the category of children where the physical development, social, and personality development are different from that of the adults (Kirkby et al., 1996).

Children under this are facing lots of physical changes in the body; they are about to touch puberty in the next few years. Certain developments are being observed such as height, growth, and an increase in weight as well. So this requires a lot of support in the form of social and psychological support and nurses in this regard play an important role in ensuring patients’ privacy during the session or time duration of health care. Nurses also need to give respect to their ethnic identity.

Growth and Developmental Theories:

Growth and developmental theories help to provide a framework that is helpful in determining growth in many aspects. Moreover, it offers the logical base for our observations and explanations that how people act and why they react. These theories also help nurses to help them positively in the nursing profession (Keeshin et al., 2014).

Biophysical Theory:

Gesell’s theory states that the human body grows according to its genetic blueprint and pace, growth is associated with gene activity. Since environmental factors may sometimes modify the developmental patterns.

Genetic Theory of Aging states that DNA is the main function of the cell’s lifespan, and accounts for the longevity in families.

Non-genetic Cellular theories look at the most basic unit which is cell rather than DNA.

Physiological Theories of aging state the breakdown of the performance of a particular organ and the impairment of physiological control mechanisms.

Family-centered care is considered a partnership approach to decision-making in the healthcare industry. As centered family care is recognized by multiple medical societies and several healthcare systems as an integral part of patients’ health and satisfaction. However, family-centered care is now at a crossroads these days. There are also some fundamental misconceptions regarding family-centered care that as how to implement it and how to determine it. Family-centered care can never be delivered on promises or words except for the understanding and support between them is strong enough. Moreover, it won’t be if we say that central family care is an attitude change in the path of clinical care provider (Chen et al., 2015).

Family-centered care is referred to as recognizing that the family is consistent in a child’s life, while the services around the system keep on changing. Family-centered care also means providing the child with all levels of collaboration services. Sharing with the child and family on a regular basis and in a supportive way to provide information regarding the health of the child. Family-centered care also involves the recognition of family strengths and respecting various methods of dealing. Ignoring all the racial, spiritual, social, and economic diversity. Facilitating and encouraging information from family to family in regard to support and networking is also a part of family-centered care.

The effects of hospitalization of the child, on the child and family.

Hospitalization both positively and negatively affects the family as well as the children while caring for the illness of children. Positive aspects may involve focusing on the patient’s health and seeking medical advice from experts (Azuine et al., 2015).

The main focus of hospitalization is on assisting the families to live well with the illness. The stress is on life and its quality; this is not only for the sake of the patient but also for the family. The child who is in critical condition must be hospitalized and must be given some disciplined treatment to get the cure as soon as possible, this not only treats the disease quickly but also decrease the chance of spreading any viral disease. So hospitalization should be carried out during the phase of illness. Children not only need care and affection but also need guidance to recover quickly. At home as we know there are no proper procedures to follow to speed up the rate of cure and treatment, sometimes cure, and treatment is prolonged due to carelessness in taking medicines and using the precautionary measure. But when we talk about hospitalization, we are keeping in mind the proper physical cure with the help of nurses and medical staff. Nurses are constantly assessing the patient and keeping in a record their physical condition. Food and medicines dose is provided as per recommended by the physician or doctor. Moreover, cleanliness is managed on an hourly basis in hospitals which is also a healthy and effective way to cure the illness. The minimum exposure to dirt, the greater chances of curing instantly. However there are also some drawbacks of hospitalization, the child may feel separated from the family, and it may reduce the freedom of the child in many regards. As children feel happy when they are home with their family, so when they are departed from the home to hospitalization this may reduce their mental and physical growth. Some cases involve in which patients who may get in worse conditions due to hospitalization in illness. On the other hand, there is also a huge impact on the families, families may also feel isolated and stressed during the phase of illness of the child, and they may feel lonely and helpless in this regard. Children need love and affection from their family and siblings which can only be provided when they are home. A reaction of children differs from hospitalization; some find it like independence while others may feel isolated. In this regard, the parent can help by frequently visiting the child or by living with the child under the criteria of one person per patient in the hospital. This can help reduce the feeling of isolation in the hospitalized environment (Bonn, 1994).


To conclude, it should be mentioned that to cure any disease proper medical aid is required by any patient, which can only be found under the supervision of experts and nurses during hospitalization. The health care experts and professionals should be supportive enough that the patients feel no hesitation while grabbing the required information and sharing their problems with them. The nurses and medical experts are responsible for maintaining and taking care of all the standards in a hospital and for taking care of all the minor requirements that a patient may have. Moreover, healthcare experts should maintain equality among all the patients; it’s not like they focus on patients by discriminating against patients due to their race or any other social aspect. The healthcare professionals should make the children and their families understand the significance of centered family care that can help the patient and their families maintain a happy and healthy life. Mostly when it comes to critical and hazardous diseases, centered family care is the most appropriate approach.


Azuine, R. E., Singh, G. K., Ghandour, R. M., & Kogan, M. D. (2015). Geographic, racial/ethnic, and Sociodemographic disparities in parent-reported receipt of family-centered care among US children. International journal of family medicine2015.

Bonn, M. (1994). The effects of hospitalisation on children: a review. Curationis17(2), 20-24.

Chen, H. C., van den Broek, W. S., & ten Cate, O. (2015). The case for the use of entrustable professional activities in undergraduate medical education. Academic Medicine90(4), 431-436.

Keeshin, B. R., Strawn, J. R., Luebbe, A. M., Saldaña, S. N., Wehry, A. M., DelBello, M. P., & Putnam, F. W. (2014). Hospitalized youth and child abuse: a systematic examination of psychiatric morbidity and clinical severity. Child abuse & neglect38(1), 76-83.

Kirkby, R. J., & Whelan, T. A. (1996). The effects of hospitalisation and medical procedures on children and their families. Journal of Family Studies2(1), 65-77.

Rimmer, R. B., Bay, R. C., Alam, N. B., Sadler, I. J., Richey, K. J., Foster, K. N., … & Rosenberg, D. (2015). Measuring the burden of pediatric burn injury for parents and caregivers: informed burn centre staff can help to lighten the load. Journal of Burn Care & Research36(3), 421-427.

Wiener, L., Kazak, A. E., Noll, R. B., Patenaude, A. F., & Kupst, M. J. (2015). Standards for the psychosocial care of children with cancer and their families: an introduction to the special issue. Pediatric blood & cancer62(S5).



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