Q1. How did the Triads evolve? What role did the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 play in that evolution? How did Mao Zedong’s regime affect the Triads? What effect has globalization had on Triad criminal activity? Based on China’s current course, what do you think the future of the Triads will be?
Triad is defined as a branch associated with the main branch of the Chinese transitional criminal syndicate located in Hong Kong, China, Macau, Taiwan, and in various other countries owning a significant population of the Chinese community. The origin of Triads traces back to the time it was linked with the secret societies known as Hung Societies (Ter Haar). A well-known example among the triads known as Heaven and Earth Society was established in 1760. Over time, the society influenced various parts of China, giving birth to smaller parties being created with different names. These newfound societies took on the emblem as their identifying emblem, mostly seen with the decoration of swords or pictures of Guan Yun as their imagery. The primary motive these societies had in common was to dismantle the Qing Dynasty and the restorative of the Ming Dynasty.
Around the early 19th century, many of these societies were recognized as organizations responsible for assisting Chinese immigrants to settle down in a foreign country. The British government took a strong stance against these organizations. The first British government action syndicate was implemented in Singapore in 1890, banning their activities and enforcing strong laws performed by the colonial governors. However, after World War II, these societies resurged, benefiting from the situations of uncertainty and the ongoing anti-British sentiment. In 1949, after the foundation of the Chinese People’s Republic, most of the Chinese criminal syndicates came after strong opposition and were suppressed under the orders of Mao Zedong.
Q2. Do you believe the outlaw motorcycle gangs are like the Mafia, a criminal organization, or do you think that they are an organization of criminals? Understanding that, do you believe that this concept has changed over time from its foundations just after World War II to today?
Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, considered to be a national threat and recognized as a policing threat, are given policing priority act, followed by seventeen EU member states along with six pattern states of Europol. However, not all Motorcycle Clubs are not considered to be a threat; there are some that are found to be violating federal or state laws. America’s Department of Justice deems outlaw motorcycle gangs to be organizations that are found to be involved in various criminal acts while using the club as a conduit.
The Outlaw Motorcycle Gang got a major evolved extensively right after World War II since most of the war veterans recognized the freedom associated with these clubs. Clubs were being opened more rapidly than pre-war, and as such, criminal activities associated with these clubs escalated as well. Most of the veterans joined the motorcycle clubs, naming themselves to be Galloping Gooses and names of many other forms that became their identification. As time progressed, the clubs too underwent many changes and evolved. Their activities and agendas are taking on new ways as police policies are strengthened in numerous countries to suppress and monitor their events across the nation.
Ter Haar, Barend J. Ritual and Mythology of the Chinese Triads. Vol. 41, Brill, 2000.