He was born in July 20th 365BC, in Pella the ancient capital of Macedonia. He was among the sons of Philip11. Completed his education at Maiz in 340BC. He is known as one of the successful military commanders in his times. Conquered many territories within his 12 years of reign. Among the regions are Syria, Egypt, and Palestine. Being a student of Aristotle and son of the Philip 11, he grew up a politician and a military. His father died while 20 years.He was then appointed the king of Macedonia. This was possible because Alexander had led Chaeronea war in 338BC of which they triumph thereby attracting the attention of the entire world. His father was assassinated when he was only 20 years only, developing a spirit of revenge towards the states (Athens and Thebes) who celebrated after the death of his father plus those termed as responsible. In support of his mother and Use of his troops, he was able to fight battles.They secured the frontlines and defeated the Greek rebellion creating his first victory against Persia Empire, a battle that almost caused his life.
The Achaemenid Empire was the most significant empire in Persia founded by Cyrus. As Alexander crossed to Asia, troops awaited him. They fought along the River banks of Granicus minimizing the number of Persians. This enabled him to fight many wars in which he succeeded to kill many Persian nobles. He was able to access Persian capitals where he carried the Persia treasuries, gold, and silver. After the murder of Darius 111, he acquired the title of Great King of Persia, King of Macedonia and Asia as well. However, his conquer led to the decline of Persian Empire. As a leader, he welcomed the Persian custom’s to win hearts of the Persian people who seemed to dislike him. He also appointed local administrators but still faced rejection from the people. For him to remain loyal to his Macedonia, he had to withdraw the Persian culture. He so later proceeded to the South then later on returned to Persia again.
He went to India after conquering Achaemenid Empire and now Persian King. He advanced into the city of Punjab creating war with Indian King, Porus whom he couldn’t defeat.His army then refused to proceed claiming they are tired and afraid of the Nanda Empire. He, therefore, turned to South of which along the way he conquered many states along Indus River. He so stabilized the political power in Indus river valley leading to the emergence of Indian’s very first empire, Mauryan. In conjunction with Hellenism, there emerged Buddhism. A religion that spread all the way to China to Asia. However, this religion did not reach Persian Empire because there already emerged strong religion known as Zoroastrianism.
He spent several months in Egypt as part of his campaign against Darius 111.This was after he conquers of Syria and Palestine. Without any army, Egypt’s Persian governor handed him over 800 talents and all the royal instruments keeping him as one of the administrators. For so many years, Persian kings had never shown any respect for the ancient traditions. Alexander, therefore, was seen as a savior, liberator and so became the people’s choice. As a legitimate heir, he was anointed as the Egyptian Pharaoh. He also had no difficulty in worshipping Egyptian gods, giving him higher chances. He so supported Greek and Egyptian fusion in worshiping of gods of Egypt. He attracted eyes of the Egyptians. Some referred to him as “Son of the gods.”
Pressing to Egyptian fort of Bhaktis, Alexander observed the waters of the formed island which enthusiastically pushed him into working out the system of underground water and sewers. He also managed to plan for the site for the royal palace. His achievements and plans, e.g., for Nile and Aswan dam, gave him more chances. He so founded Alexandria Egypt’s capital in 331 BCE, a city which was center of culture and commerce. It became the capital of Egypt under Ptolemaic dynasty. Its location along the Mediterranean attracted sea trade. However, his unification with the Mediterranean promoted slave trade as a result of wealth attained. Unemployment due to slavery, human labor was a trend.Free peasants immigrated in search of jobs and occupations.
While considering conquest of Carthage and Rome, he died in Babylon. At the age of thirty-two years only. His legacy remained in many states. He builds opportunities for the Greek merchants, engineers, etc. His followers were united in respect to his monarchy. Autocracy remained as his political endowment. Moreover, in his memory, they used force to build military monarchies. His vision of empire influenced even Roman his center of interest. His generals divided his empire after death into three states named Seleucid, Macedonia, and Ptolemaic dynasty. Seleucid extended and captured Babylon.It was later on absorbed by Parthian Empire in the 2nd century.
His general cultural implications
Cultural legacies are amongst his great legacies. He developed Greek as a language for trade and commerce of which people highly benefited. This language moreover led to widespread of their art, drama, and philosophy. The school came to exist in respect to these.His conquest promoted unity and eliminated the power of city-state since now people identified themselves with not states but rather as an individual. Developed the art and literature, architecture which expanded into the Middle East. Urban Centers he built became Greek culture which Spread and became one of the most characteristics of the Hellenistic realm. His empire promoted trade hence enhanced emergence of primary routes, e.g., Silk route.Chinese silk, for example, was in high demand in the Mediterranean hence caravans along the Silk Road emerged as well.
Fox, R. L. (2004). Alexander the great. Penguin UK.
Tarn, W. W. (2003). Alexander the Great: Volume 2, Sources and Studies (Vol. 2). Cambridge University Press.
Baynham, E. (1998). Alexander the Great: the unique history of Quintus Curtius. University of Michigan Press.