The famous organization working for the cause of children has estimated that over one million infants die on their first day of life thus making it the most dangerous day for infants in almost every country. The infant mortality rate is a very vital indicator of the state of health in any community. Its significance is evident from a number of points; it can show that the overall status of the health services in a community. It represents the state of health facilities for pregnant mothers and infants. It also represents the state of financial resources allocated for parents and child health in a community. It can also work as an indicator of the level of development; it is also included in the Millennium Development Goals the United Nations. The infant mortality may be described as the rate that represents the deaths of infants younger than one year. It is computed by dividing the total number of infant deaths in each year by the total number of live births in that year (Osterman, Kochanek, MacDorman, Strobino, & Guyer, 2015).
In last few years, the situation of infant mortality has improved, the infant death rate was six infant deaths per one thousand live births in the year 2015, down approximately thirteen percent from the year 2005. The age-adjusted mortality rate for 2013 was 7.3 deaths per one thousand population; it was almost same in the year 2012. According to the experts, the three leading health problem in children are birth defects, mental health problems, and obesity (“Infant Mortality, Maternal and Infant Health, Reproductive Health, CDC”, 2016). Birth defects are costly, common, and critical disorders that affect one out of thirty-three babies born in the USA in a year. Infants in multi gestation pregnancies are much more likely to be born earlier and smaller than those born in singleton pregnancies. Such infants are more likely to have birth defects. Multi gestation pregnancies also result in the low birth weight (LBW) that is a danger sign and may lead to infant mortality in some cases.
According to experts the second main issue of the infants is mental health, it refers to a situation in which a child is born with underdeveloped brain or develops mental health problems in the early years of life. This premature birth increases the risks of mental health problems. The figures show that in the year 2014 the premature birth affected about one percent of the children born in the USA. The last weeks of pregnancies are very vital as the mind of the baby grows, and some essential functions are performed in the womb. If a baby is born early, besides the risk of early death, he or she faces the risks of underdevelopment of brain, vision issues, and hearing problems.
There is a marked difference between the roles of a community health nurse and the nurse in the acute care setting, the community health nurse works in a much wider environment of child health and with a much larger scope of work (Neufer, 1994). The community health nurse works not only to provide medical and paramedical health care services, but he or she also educate a wider community about health and its issues. On the other hand, the nurse in the acute care setting works in the hospitals and medical facilities, he or she works with a relatively limited number of people. The community health nurse has to travel a lot as his or her area of service is very wide.
It may be concluded that the global community has to work a lot to improve the situation of infant health. The goal should be to reduce the infant mortality further and improve the health of mothers. The community and the private health organizations should join hand with the government around the globe to safeguard the health of children.
Infant Mortality | Maternal and Infant Health | Reproductive Health | CDC. (2016). Cdc.gov. Retrieved 23 July 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/infantmortality.htm
Neufer, L. (1994). The Role of the Community Health Nurse in Environmental Health.Public Health Nursing, 11(3), 155-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.1994.tb00395.x
Osterman, M., Kochanek, K., MacDorman, M., Strobino, D., & Guyer, B. (2015). Annual Summary of Vital Statistics: 2012-2013. PEDIATRICS, 135(6), 1115-1125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-0434