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Columbus Essay

In fifteen and sixteen centuries the European States starts exploring the new Europe through seaways. The states of Spain and Portugal were leading bodies in this initiative. Moreover, England and the Netherlands were also involved. This exploration was made for the sake of wealth and power. Christopher Columbus was not the 1st individual to suggest that an individual can reach out to the continent of Asia by navigating west from Europe. Researchers claim that the impression is nearly as ancient as the notion that the planet Earth is round. (Specifically, it dates-back to initial Rome.) This paper will discuss the struggles of Christopher Columbus while journeying around the world and the challenges that Columbus has faced in his journey around the world. I agree with the much of what was new came about through struggle rather than cooperation

These explorations enhance European information about the broadness of world, mainly relative to sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas. These explorations were both in the term of politics and religion because European wants to increase their hold and impact to all over the world. The desire of trade and to rule this world is pulling factor of these discoveries. Most of the discovery took place through the sea routes because both the Portugal and Spain were having excellent naval skills. In deserts they use the astrolabe, an instrument used to find out the location of your destination. Explorer from Portugal, Spain, England, Netherlands, and France took participation in the exploration of Europe. This new exploration pushes Europe into the new territory, cultural and geography. This also includes physical, environmental and other encounters(Lauter et al.).

The word discovery is notorious as it suggests indifference on the part of native people. This uneven opinion contradicts an independent survival to native inhabitants before the entrance of Europeans. Since in the 1990s, writers of history have progressively substituted the term “discovery” with “encounter,” which is supposed as more suggesting.

By the conclusion of the fifteenth century, it was almost unbearable to move to Asia from Europe by land. The course was very long and difficult, and meets with the aggressive militaries were hard to evade. Portuguese travelers resolved this difficulty by moving to the sea: They navigated to the south alongside the West-African shore and round the Cape of Good Hope.

Nonetheless, Columbus had a dissimilar notion: Why not navigate to the west crossways to the Atlantic in its place of about the huge African landmass? The energetic navigator’s judgment was thoroughly, but his mathematics has some fault in it. He contended (wrongly) that the perimeter of the planet Earth was considerably lesser than his generations supposed it was; therefore, he thought that the trip by ship or boat from the continent of Europe to the continent of Asia must be not only conceivable but reasonably easy(Shell and Sollors).

Portugal was the strongest explorer at the beginning of Fifteen century Portugal first enters into North Africa from where with the help of Prince Henry she took entrance on the shore of Africa.

After that Portugal with the financial assistance of France landed in the Caribbean.  Then Portugal announced the ownership of Brazil. Vasco da Gama was another Portuguese explorer who reached the India. England made east Indian company in the India. Spanish explorer landed in the Mexico. A famous explorer from France conquers Inca emperor. This is a brief timeline of exploration made by American, Portuguese, Spanish and duct explorer.

An anthology of English literature published in 1946 by Norton and companies writes that the discovery and exploration of Europe where the results of the struggle rather than the cooperation. It was encounter in which both the native and the explorer’s face struggle to settle down. As both of them had different ideology, nature, culture, thoughts and believed, so both of them is the challenge for each other. I second this opinion. According to my point of view, this is the struggle based story. Both of them struggled a lot to cope the result of that exploration. Both of them faced problems, both of them wants to dominate, and both of them wants to preserve their culture. The biggest problem and the struggle were the understanding of culture. Most of the explorer forced the native to do things according to them. Beside these struggle to get fit into the environment, Europe learned a lot from the states which explore. They gain a lot of information about art, architecture, science, and culture. This also affects the economy of Europe. In the following part of my paper, I am going to support my stamen with facts and figure and going to portrait the whole sketch of all the learning’s and lose by both of them. Firstly, I will discuss the difficulties faced by the explorer and native(Lauter).

On August 3, 1492, Columbus and his crew members set to sail out from Spain in three boats: the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. On October 12, the ships have arrived not only in the continent of Asia, as Columbus has presumed, nonetheless on one of the islands of Baham.

For several months, Columbus has navigated from one island to another island in what we currently recognize as the Caribbean, considering for the “pearls, precious stones, gold, silver, spices, and other objects and merchandise whatsoever” that he had undertaken to his Spanish customers, but he didn’t find out considerably. In March 1493, letting 40 men behindhand in a rough-and-ready payment on Hispaniola (present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic), he returned to Spain.

The first and the biggest problem faced by both of them are the cultural difference. The entrance of explorer to Africa, India, and America showed them that all of them are having a different culture and different religion. Both American and Europen are having the same faith, so they were very familiar with each other. Besides all this,  they face some problem in the term of language. They come to the Africa where the explorer meets the Muslims whoos changed in culture, in language and habits. This cause problem for both African an for the explorer. Firstly lack communication and secondly misinterpretation. Both of these issues leade to several massacres and resistance among them. Then it comes to the India where again people were having their own culture, their own rules, and their norms. At there again both of them face problem in understanding each other which case the sense of hate among the people.

The second advantage to the explorer was opening up new routes to the East.

This is the religious factor, within the exploration of European to all over the world Christianity is considered as the universal religion. Because whenever they used to explore the new state, they start teaching their religion over there to overcome the difference between the people and to conquer the area fastly.

In September 1493, Columbus returned to the American people. He originates the Hispaniola reimbursement demolished (up till now, nobody recognizes what has happened over there) and lefts his brothers Bartolommeo and Diego behinds to reestablish, alongside with the share of his boats’ crew and hundreds of imprisoned citizens.

Then he moved to the west, with his accompaniment of the native-slaves, to endure his frequently futile exploration for the gold and additional products. Instead of the substantial resources he had assured the Spanish-monarchs, he has sent around 500 slaves to Queen Isabella. The queen was depressed. She assumed that some persons Columbus has discovered were Spanish matters who cannot be imprisoned and she promptly and severely resumed back the traveler’s gift.

In May 1498, Columbus navigated to the west crossways to the Atlantic Ocean for the 3rd time. He has visited Trinidad and in the South American continental earlier to the recurring to the doomed Hispaniola settlement, where the settlers had presented a bloodstained rebellion alongside the Columbus associates’ misconduct and cruelty. Circumstances were very undesirable that the Spanish experts had to direct a new director to take over. Christopher Columbus was detained and sent back to Spain with chains in his hand.

The fourth one is the Economic factor. This exploration increases the trade rest of Europe with the other States. Because now they have easy land and sea routes. Europe trade a lot of Slik and Cotton with the India and China. New technologies in wayfinding and navigation helped the Europeans to trade quickly. It provides them easy land and sea route. All of this trade increase the income of Europe which in return increase the economic condition of Europe.

All of this paper concludes that no doubt that the discovery and exploration of Europe where the results of struggle rather than the cooperation. Which means that This discovery was not just discovery. It was encounter in which both the native and the explorer’s face struggle to settle down. As both of them had different ideology, nature, culture, thoughts and believed, so both of them is the challenge for each other. But at the same time, Europe learned a lot from the states which the explore. They gain a lot of information about art, architecture, science, and culture. This also affects the economy of Europe. New technologies in wayfinding and navigation helped the Europeans to trade easily. It provides them easy land and sea route. All of this trade increase the income of Europe which in return increase the economic condition of Europe. So Exploring something is all about the struggle because of this one has to face many problems, and you would always be ready to face any situation.

Christopher Columbus didn’t “discover” the America, neither was he was the 1st European person to visits the “New World.” (A Viking traveler has navigated to the Greenland and New-found land in the 11th era.)

Franklin has revealed the Gulf-Stream afterward his return-journey crossways the Atlantic-Ocean from the city of London in the year 1775. He initiated to venture around why the westbound journey mostly takes longer time, and his capacities of the temperature of the ocean led to his finding of the presence of the Gulf-Stream. This information has obliged to reduce it to two weeks off the earlier marine time from North America to Europe(Lauter).

Mary White was taken to the United States by her paternities when she was a small child. They had lived in Salem in the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Which is currently the United States’ state of Massachusetts), till the year 1653, when they were taken to the frontier village of Lancaster. In the year 1656, she wedded Joseph Rowlandson; he has intended a Puritan minister in the year 1660, and he turns into Lancaster’s 1st regular minister. Actions of the next two decades of her life are ambiguous(Lauter).

Traveller Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was born in the year 1490, in Extremadura, Castile, in Spain. He was the treasurer of the Spanish voyage in Pánfilo de Narváez that has reached which is currently called Tampa Bay, Florida, in the year 1528. In September all however his party of 60 had perishing; it has moved to the coast close to current Galveston,  in the state of Texas. The survivors survived amongst the populace of the area for four years, and Cabeza de Vaca carved-out their parts as a dealer and as the healer in public(Lauter).

Though, his trip has kicked-off hundreds of years of survey and utilization on the American landmasses. The significances of his searches were very severe for the local inhabitants of the parts he and the conquistadores subjugated. Illness and ecological variations caused in the obliteration of the mainstream of the innate populace with the passage of time, though the Europeans continuous to excerpt the natural-capitals from these regions.

Nowadays, Columbus has a contentious bequest, he is recalled as a bold and path-breaking traveler who transmuted the New-World; however his activities also unchecked variations that will finally overwhelm the local inhabitants he and his associate’s travelers faced.

In the year 1502, clear of the majority of the severe charges but uncovered of his honorable labels, the old Columbus convinced the Spanish ruler to wage for one past journey crossways to the Atlantic Ocean. This time, Columbus has made it the entire mode to the Panama only some miles from the Pacific-Ocean, where he has to unrestraint 2 of his four boats in the aspect of an outbreak from aggressive nations. Unsuccessful, the aging traveler has returned to Spain, where he expired in the year 1506.

Works Cited

Thomas, H. (1997). The slave trade: The story of the Atlantic slave trade, 1440-1870. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Klein, H. S. (1999). The Atlantic slave trade. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press. “A Brief History of American Literature.” Accessed September 25, 2017.

“heath_anthology__5_ins_guide.pdf.” Accessed September 25, 2017.

Lauter, Paul. “The Heath Anthology of American Literature.” American Literature, no. 26, 2003.

—. The Heath Anthology of American Literature, Volume C: Late Nineteenth Century: 1865-1910. Vol. 3, Cengage Learning, 2009.

Shell, Marc, and Werner Sollors. The Multilingual Anthology of American Literature: A Reader of Original Texts with English Translations. NYU Press, 2000.



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