One of the major public health issues in nations around the world is increasing rate of childhood obesity, alongside lacking health awareness in parents and peer groups. Over the past decade, obesity has increased in children and adolescents. Many an intervention have been associated with the obesity and overweight in children and some bad consequences of physical, psychological and social nature related to childhood obesity have been anticipated. Public health officials and social institutions have been looking for the factors that cause childhood obesity, and intervention strategies of various types are used for prevention and control of these causes. Communication and information of health issues at public level in society is an important concern to the government and policymakers of a nation. Official institutions apart from academics are putting efforts to obtain research-based data for a valid and helpful data to be used as background knowledge while devising the public health policies. This manuscript aims to serve the purpose of a systematic review of validated studies on the social health phenomenon of overweight and obesity in children between 4-10 years of age. The findings suggest childhood obesity can be controlled at public level applying effective interventions such as nutrition practices, increased physical activities and health education for parents, teachers, peers and children themselves.
“Public Health” is a multidisciplinary topic for research and scientific studies. It has been a concern to the scholars from different fields such as social sciences, psychology, medicine, public administration, technology, and education and communication disciplines.
This proposal is anchored to analyse the role played by health education in reducing obesity in child aged between four to ten years. Health education encompasses a variety of factors including communication skill, cultural/social influence, decision-making ability, and so on but not limited to functional health literacy. Demonstration of the relationship between childhood obesity and health education has been provided in several empirical studies (better health, the increased participation rate in school, reduced obesity among others) among children. However, this protocol will demonstrate the rationale for the study and outline the aim and objectives of the investigation. In preparing this proposal, a methodical approach has been followed to clarify inclusion and exclusion of the findings. To assist in the execution of database search, PICO format has been used as some sources has been searched to find relevant articles. Chosen articles have been critically appraised to find relevant and emerging themes. Finally, the events discussed in this proposal will be concluded along with researcher’s recommendations.
Background of the study
Currently, the United Kingdom has a comprehensive policy on alcohol and tobacco that is considered one of the well-devised policies on health issues. Cairney investigated some of the important factors involved in the successful public health campaigns on the consummation of alcohol and analyses the hurdles causing problems to movement in the pursuit of stringent alcohol control. Both alcohol and tobacco are legal addictions in the United Kingdom. Scholars from the medical science and public health disciplines investigate the dangers associated with the use of these both, gather shreds of evidence and advocate the policies that are designed to control the alcohol and cigarette consumption and health hazards associated with it (Cairney, 2014).
Public health groups are more concerned with investigating the about the extent to which the public health policies are contingent on solutions to the problem. They look for the positive relationship of solutions provided by the policies on the reduction of alcohol and cigarette. However, the response has been found weak or disproportionate towards the problem by policies. Policy response may take decades to make it required proportion to the problem. Cairney’ s investigations suggest that there is a gap between policy response towards alcohol and cigarette. UK health policies regarding alcohol and cigarette consumption are among the best in the world (Cairney et al., 2012).
The United Kingdom’ s Department of Health (2009) has devised guidelines for the healthcare sector and the general public to protect the health of young of the nation from 5-19 years old named as Healthy Child Programme. The HCP has provided with the recommendations that in what ways different social institutions like family, education and healthcare can put collective efforts to substantially improve life chances of child and young of the nation between 5-19 years. HCP has also devised guidelines as in good practice framework for interventions and prevention services in the early years of kids. The Health Ministry conducted a survey in 2004 named “Every Child Matters” in which young kids and adolescents identified essentials for their lives which became the foundation of Healthy Child Programme. These five vitalities of children and adolescents’ lives are; to be healthy, safety, enjoy and achieve, make contributions to the society and achieve economic good.
The principle of non-maleficence in healthcare makes it obligatory to the concerns to cause and conduct no harm. This principle is considered important since the systemized healthcare practice exists. It has been advisable for healthcare professionals to act in beneficence manner, but if in case that it is not possible, they are encouraged not to harm at least. There is a thin line of difference between the two concepts, causing people to confuse between these and consider them as the same thing. Nonmaleficence is a guideline that “one ought not to inflict evil or harm” (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013), whereas beneficence is about following the three principles “one ought to prevent evil or harm, one ought to remove evil or harm, one ought to do or promote good” (Beauchamp & Chidress, 2013).
Studies on parental and schools awareness on health issues have shown that there is a greater need to formulate policies that are more contingent on the health and welfare of children and adolescents of the nation. The United Kingdome has given importance to the issue of public health and scholars from various fields are coming up with their perspectives and theories on public health based on scientific research. The existing substance of research suggests and foster further ideas to be incorporated in future investigations of public health.
A Public wellbeing nutritionist and her associates composed a paper on successful general wellbeing interventions to stop the obesity increment in children from newborn children to six years of age. The investigation question they tended to was “what are viable general wellbeing intercessions to keep corpulence in youngsters from birth to six years.” It was an efficient audit of writing brought out utilizing optional information through library research of PsycInfo, Medline and CINAHL. The conclusion showed that specific intercessions are observed to be fruitful in trial concentrates to stop or lower the corpulence rate in kids under six years.
These intercessions included good dieting propensities, diminished stationary action, managed physical activities, socio-social and financial affectability and association of family and schools. Baillie & Black (2015) talked about the sic Cs of caring developed as a resultant of widespread consultation exercise held by Department of Health in England investigating the “values of nursing”, “ values for nurses” published in “ Comparison in Practice: nursing, Midwifery and Care Staff: Our Vision and Strategy” in 2012. The vision advocated the incorporation of six caring values into nursing practice. Baillie & Black explored these six values; Care is the prime business of healthcare organisations in the society and the provision of care help individuals and community as whole to improve health.
Caring is the definition of nursing and nurses’ work. People in seek of such care expect it to be serving them rightly throughout their treatments during the span of life. Compassion refers to as the way of delivering care based on a relationship of respect, empathy and dignity. The factor of intelligence in the provision of nursing care is also embodied in the vision revolving around the idea that how do people perceive care from healthcare professionals.
Shockingly, 51 million children were suffering from obesity in 2014 which was only 35 million in 1990; this finding can be termed as “exploding nightmare” (WHO, 2016). Many other studies have also found similar findings regarding childhood obesity especially children aged between 4 and ten years.
Numerous interventions have a relationship with general public health and obesity rate in children. Developed countries have focused this area for development as young of the nations are a prime concern. If the factors contributing to the increasing obesity rates in children are not addressed properly, they can further cause greater obesity in adults. Healthcare academics and professionals are putting efforts to find the relationships of different factors with childhood obesity to provide background knowledge for the policymakers to better address the public health issues in the society. This paper is an attempt to provide a systematic review of the existing research substance on a relationship between health education and childhood obesity.
PICO is a structured format which is being used for the development of research questions based on four areas (Fink, 2013). Following PICO format has been used in case of this proposal for choosing the research question: “does health education help to reduce obesity in children aged between four to ten years?”
|Children aged between 4 and ten years
|Preventing Childhood Obesity
Several combinations of keywords have been used to find most relevant research articles. Most relevant research articles, especially on health education and childhood obesity, have been searched to find health education and its role in reducing obesity in children. To do so, several bibliographic databases including Medline, CINAHL, Ovid, and PubMed have been searched to find articles using PICO format. Boolean operators including AND, NOT, and OR has been used to connect keywords and widen the search results.
Karnik and Kanekar carried out a twelve years long research on childhood obesity as a global public health crisis. The research was based on premier databases MEDLINE, ERIC, CINAHL. The phenomenon under study was national and international childhood obesity crisis. The researchers posited that an increase in childhood obesity had been observed in past few years the world over. The major reason behind this phenomenon is an imbalance in the utilization of calories and intake of calories. There are other causal factors as well such as behavioural, genetic and environmental play a role in childhood obesity. Childhood obesity subsequently causes psychological, physical, social health problems through succeeding phases of life. Various factors contributing to the phenomenon and interventions on community and government level were addressed in the study. The results showed that interventions used to reduce obesity in childhood were school-based, family-based, hospital-based and community-based. School-based interventions targeted healthy diet education and physical activity.
The number of obese children is doubled since 1980. It was found in 2016 that sixteen percent of children between the age of 6-19 years. The rate of obesity was higher among the Mexican-American children as in 25.5 percent; the Indian-American obese children were 23.2 percent and white adolescents, non-Hispanic who belonged to lower-income families tended to be more obese as compared to their age-mates from higher social classes. Recent years have observed that weight-related health problems present in adults have appeared in a young population. According to and co-researchers that eating habits causing obesity is influenced by numerous factors such as families, health care services available, community organisations, religion, mass media and educational institutes. The study suggests that schools alone cannot help decrease the obesity rate in children yet it cannot be stopped altogether without the school-based interventions.
Zilanawala and co-researchers in 2013 attempted to investigate the risk of obesity in childhood comparatively in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The interventions used were the ethnic classifications hand in a rate of obesity in both nations’ children of five years. They obtained data of overweight five years old children from “Early longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort” and “Millennium Cohort Study” and examined those. They investigated the racial disparities’ relationship with Body Mass Index comparative to the normal weight. The factors and variables of the study were social, demographical, cultural and family to indicate the disparities. The research found that in the United Kingdom Black Children Caribbean had the higher ratio of odds in overweight and obesity as in 1.7, Pakistani children had lower odds ratio as in 0.60, and Black African had the highest potential odd ratio as in 1.40. In comparison, the United States had no ethnic disparities related to obesity odds in children given that interventions model fully adjusted.
Researching the health communication focuses on the relationship between the communication of health-related issues and the delivery of health education and healthcare to individuals. Socio-psychological work on the ideas of diffusion of the health-related problems and matters through mass-mediated messages appeared along with the advent of communication technologies and channels in the contemporary society (Katz, Coleman & Menzel, 1966). Scholars from medicine and nursing fields are more interested in investigating the interactive communication between the healthcare provider and receiver and such studies have always been published under the head of health communication often in journals such as “Patient education and Counselling”.
In the recent decades a couple of new focus area have gained a strong place in health communication research; projection of health-related issues in media content and the role of communication technologies in the dissemination of health issues. The first focus area is that how mass media; both print and broadcast including social media, present and project health related issues and second area centralises the research on information technology and healthcare technology in the public health (Bowling, 2014). Analyzing the media campaign on public health and their success or failure is another dimension of research focus in the healthcare sector and mass communication. Early research body on health communication tend to depict not a very often use of quantitative methods in investigations rather they were mostly using the qualitative analysis methods. Over the decades, however, health communication investigations have adopted the more sophisticated approach.
Recent researches are extensions of the earlier studies or are built upon theories presented by those. Hypotheses developed recently are even narrower and focused on the respective subject of study, and factorial design of investigations are more in vogue as compared to the early studies that analysed single variable at one time. Methods of the study do matter in the production of accurate results. The method used in particular research shows our specific understanding of the health communication topic, is apparently a sense-making instrument, the determinant of data type related to health communication and determinant of possible knowledge details (Bowling, 2014). The use of quantitative analysis technique in research studies helps the researcher to minimise the personal perceptions’ influence on the investigations however assumptions are present underlying the conceptual frameworks of the studies (Bowling, 2014).
The overweight health phenomenon is prevailing in children under age in an almost all countries around the world in an increasing manner. Renata et al. (2013) investigated the prevalence of obesity in school-going children between 6-11 years. The researcher and co-researchers took a sample of one hundred and nine schools and conducted a cross-sectional study. Alongside on a sample of parents using 16,588 questionnaires, a survey was conducted. The study showed results that were contrary to the national average reported officially. The researchers concluded that only moderate level of obesity prevails in the school going children and they further recommended that the phenomenon shall be monitored further for a raised level of awareness and provide a participative knowledge to the policy makers for the development of prevention policies for the nation.
Carnell and his co-researchers in 2005 investigated the perception of overweight among parents of children between 3-5 years of age. They took a large sample of 564 parents and children from the United Kingdom. They obtained the demographics of children, their height and weight. The results indicated increased odds of perceptions of overweight among parents as only 1.9 % of them having overweight children and 17.1% of obese children were able to describe overweight. However, a few numbers of parents were worried about their overweight children’s chances of getting obese in future. The researchers concluded that parents’ awareness of the phenomenon of overweight was poor.
Literature Search Strategies
Public health is a social phenomenon related to the health wellbeing of the individuals residing in the society and a multidisciplinary topic of research. A substantial body of research exists on the topic, and researchers from some fields such as sociology, medicine, public administration, and communication and information technology and psychology have attempted investigations on the different aspects of the phenomenon. The vast and increasing range of research studies is there and the new researchers to find the literature with most relevant and helping material to the topic and research questions development. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between health education and reduction of obesity in children between 4-10 years. Hence the researcher attempted to break down the topic into some possible terms that could fetch the relevant literature from the huge body of existing research in the field.
i). Search terms.
Public health phenomenon as a research topic incorporates some related variables that can be investigated employing various research designs such as exploring relationships between the variables and the difference. The existing researchers can be reviewed using different terms and “terminology of public health” distinguishing them in categories such as names of variables, number of variables, research methods used, research designs, population and sample etc. The terms used to search the literature on the proposed research topic were used as below.
The subject topic “Public Health” was searched for an understanding of the topic and the variables of the present research topic were broken down into possible different arrangements such as “obesity in children”, “obesity and Children” and were used to search the literature of the topic. The terms used to search the literature on the proposed research topic were used as below.
- “Public Health”
- “Obesity in Children”
- “Obesity and Children”
- “Health Education”
- “Health education for Children.”
- “Government Policies in Children Health”
- “Health Education in Schools
ii). Inclusion Criteria
The researcher developed fundamental criteria of inclusion for the search of relevant research previously conducted on the topic. The search to be done;
- In English
- About humans
- About topics that are most relevant to the “Children’ s health, public health, care, health education through mass communication, obesity in children below ten years of age and its relationship to obesity reduction.”
- Assessment of every article consisting of the topic of research
- Prevention policies by the government must include the additional criteria;
- Evidently based on public health by the regulatory bodies
- Background knowledge of research in the development of public policies
- Policies particularly catering health of children under age
- The research articles and systematic reviews included containing following additional criteria of inclusion
- Systematic (scientific) research
- Using either qualitative or/and quantitative method of research
- Involving public health education, official policies on health and human subject.
- Outcome measures of a known factor of public health
iii). Exclusion criteria.
“Public health” understandably can have a range of meanings associated with it as it is a broad concept involving various disciplines. Scholars have different views on the concept that constitute “public health” as a term for an academic and professional research project. That makes it necessary for the researcher to derive an exclusion criterion for the study design so that it be clear and narrowed down to the exact aim of the study. The inclusion and exclusion criteria of this research are exclusively for the present study and may not be representing the views of professionals and scholars or any other on public health. The researcher recognises that development of these criteria is not a perfect science and is based on researcher’s understanding of the topic. The following exclusion criteria have been derived for the present study.
Research published in any other language than English
Research published before 2005
iv). Relevant sources.
Statistics on public health-related issues and sources for obtaining are available increasingly on the internet. Many of data sources, sorted neatly are available to find most relevant information on the research topic. Governmental studies and official data from the practising and academic scholars are considered most reliable sources. The articles for this paper were searched to fulfil the requirements of the background knowledge and following relevant sources were used;
A handy data source is presenting a list of data sets on health-related issues. A collection of documents is there including CDC Prevention guidelines, and such documents are presented in the form of a table of contents. Full-text articles can be searched through this data source.
HSRIC: Health services research Information Central
Health Services Research Information Central is a great source of data relevant to health services field of practice and academics. It is a portal where internet links to the research resources such as reports, articles, and group discussions are provided. A massive body of health services research resources can be explored here to base the further research and investigation into the public health field. Federal and non-federal data repositories, health statistics, surveys and international resources are included in the portal.
Instant access to the statistics on the topic of public health and its importance is available on this site arranged alphabetically. A huge number of publications is available on the site that leads to more data sources, existing statistics and relevant material containing web pages.
Minnesota Public Health Data Access
This is also a website portal that gives access to the data resources on some various public health topics along with environmental topics. All the topics on which data is available are listed arrayed in alphabetical arrangement right on the home page for the ease of use of articles. A separate tab for access to the relevant topics is there such as environmental health topics are all available under one tab, similarly the health behaviours, public health and risk factors. Besides the definitions of words are available to read at hover of a mouse pointer; also it shows the numbers of data in charts.
Child Health: World Health Organization
World Health Organisation has a vast data resources available on the public health generally and child health specifically. Researchers can find an enormous number of data resources through World Health Organization’ data centre.
Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health
The data resource Center for Child and Adolescents Health provides data resources on the topics of child health and adolescent health and health care.
This website was beneficial for the search of relevant sources for this paper; few most pertinent links were obtained from this site to study the public health publications in the United Kingdom.
International Journal of Obesity
A couple of articles studied in the paper were obtained from the works listed in International Journal of Obesity. This Journal also has a vast range of paper on the topic of obesity in children and adolescents.
v) Data Extraction
Data extraction from the selected data sources proved a challenging task for the paper. As the paper is a systematic review of the literature, the standardised format of using data extraction table was used for extracting the key relevant information from the studies reviewed.
|Setting and Participants
|Karnik and Kanekar, 2013
|Community and Government interventions and activities
|Reviewing the research works of school-based interventions in a relationship with education on childhood, adolescent obesity
|Interventions used to reduce obesity in childhood were school-based, family-based, hospital-based and community-based.
|Howel et al., 2015.
|2120 families raising children until 13years of age
|To investigate if the childhood overweight has an association with mental health in pre-adolescence age
|Ross-lagged links, an association between variables differed depending upon child development trajectory
|Inglis et al., 2012
|Post-March and Pre March Reviews
|Physical activity, nutritional habits
|The success of school-based education on nutrition
|School-based education reduced the outcomes in compared groups.
|Haynes, B. and Browne, N. (2016)
|Childhood Obesity, Health Literacy, and the Newest Vital Sign
|Results of this study indicated that children with high obesity were, partly, due to parent’s low health literacy. This study suggested that both child and parent must have health literacy to have reduced obesity among children less than ten years of age.
|Renata et al., 2013
|Cross-sectional survey study
|One hundred and nine schools
|Level of awareness among parents and schools on health issues
|Investigation of prevalence in 6-11-year-olds
|Only moderate level of obesity prevailed among kids
|Lobstein et al., 2015
|over consumption of food and low nutritional quality of food
|To analyse the level of obesity in children
|Obesity in United Staes and worldwide children has increased over the years
|Carnel et al.,. 2005
|Parents and children from the United Kingdom
|Parents ‘ perception of overweight of children
|To assess the parents’ perception accuracy of overweight
|1.9 % parents of overweight children and 17.1% parents of children with obesity could describe the phenomenon of overweight. The odds of perceptions were increased.
|Zilanawala et al., 2015
|Comparative quantitative study
|Overweight children of five years from the United Kingdom and the United States
|To investigate ethnic disparities among the United Kingdom and the United States kids’ odds of overweight and obesity
|The United Kingdom had more minority kids’ obesity odds whereas the United States’ obesity was not related to ethnic/racial disparities
The selected articles were studied to construct the present paper. The topic was broken down to search the relevant research material on public health specifically related to childhood and adolescent obesity. Some interventions are associated with the obesity in children phenomenon of public health and assessment of these interventions prove to be of complex nature and context based, that demand for a programmatic, scientific approach for research. Not a single research approach may be considered efficient enough in an assessment of interventions related to childhood and adolescents’ obesity.
A variety of research designs were found in the existing literature, the methods of research most often used were quantitative. The evaluation of the evidence is highly dependent on the criteria of assessment as per failure or success of the interventions. The current paper looked into the studies that were close to the topic and found that researchers have attempted some methods to come up with the accurate results of the studies. Survey articles used a quantitative approach, but some of them used a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques. Longitudinal studies especially used a high combo of research methods and analysis techniques as the studies were big and involved interventions demanding for both qualitative and quantitative analysis for their assessment.
It is not always the use of research technique applied to the interventions causing the failure of evidence; sometimes the interventions inherently are faulty. Study design wholly solely are not adequate in determining the success or failure of public health interventions.
Analysis of Evidence
Studying and evaluating the given number of studies on public health issues especially related to kids and adolescents is invaluable to research scholars as a systematic review of the literature. The evidence-based researchers have fostered some conceptual frameworks within which its rigour and validity can evaluate the research. However, there is developing acknowledgement that even evidence‐based rules from firmly controlled investigations, in a perfect world controlled by arbitrary task, may not be an adequate system to measure the majority of the data expected to outline a mediation suitable for a group of people.
How best to place evidence into powerful practice to accomplish a planned reduction of obesity has for quite some time been an issue of worry in inquiring about on damage field. Research‐to‐practice holes have dependably existed, and advance in this subject has been moderate. Variables that add to this issue incorporate passes in communication amongst analysts and specialists, and administration conveyance issues, for example, the absence of open mindfulness, poor financing and a non‐supportive political air. Logical distributions of research on intercession viability, which don’t give data valuable to wide-scale general health spread, likewise add to the problem.1 Additional issues referred to by general health experts are that mediations might be too barely engaged, mind-boggling, troublesome and expensive, or may not draw in or meet the apparent needs of the community.2,3,4 Once settled, anticipation programs must be managed with adequate foundation and long‐term force, requiring significant asset venture. The articles studied in the present paper are one by one summarised as below;
Karnik and Kanekar in their study posited that childhood obesity had taken a form of national and international obesity the world over. The phenomenon has not only prevailed as an issue of public health to the governments and general public rather it has increased over past few decades. The major cause of the problem is an imbalance of diet intake and exertion. Childhood obesity entails certain health problems through the life of an individual such as psychological, physical, and social problems. The examination was library-based research and depended on main databases including MEDLINE, ERIC, CINAHL. The review studied some researches based on different research techniques.
The interventions used in the studies were mostly based on factors such as family, community, schools, hospitals and play. As far the school-based interventions were concerned the successful ones were those focusing on physical activities of children and education on nutrition and diet. Different elements adding to the marvel and mediations on group and government level were tended to in the examination. The outcomes demonstrated that mediations used to lessen heftiness in youth, were school-based, family-based, healing facility-based and group based. School-based intercessions focused on sound eating routine instruction and physical action. On the conclusive notes, the researchers suggested that on a public level the childhood obesity problem can be reduced with the use of appropriate interventions such as health education, sustainable nutritional habits, prevention measures and increased physical activity.
The quantity of obese youngsters especially children is multiplied since 1980. The study by Wechsler and his colleagues was aimed at assessment of cost-effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent the obesity in children of middle school age children. The methods for analysis of cost-effectiveness were used targeting the cost involved with interventions, medical care associated with the overweight people and cost of productivity loss. Outcome measures were some cases of overweight, and quality-adjusted saved years of life. The cost involved with a total number of interventions was measured by the net quality adjusted number of years saved.
The results indicated that at the cost of an intervention amounting 33677 per student per year, the program designed to prevent obesity could stop 1.9% female students to be an overweight person in adulthood. And approximately 4.1 years quality-adjusted years can be added to life at this cost, also the medical care cost of 15, 887 and 25104 costs of loss of productivity. The intervention program was called The Planet Health Program, and a controlled trial with the random sample was carried out to assess the program efficacy. It was found as a cost-saving and cost-effective. Such sort of interventional activities and programs tend to be more cost-effective utilising the public money and can assist public health program planners and policymakers to carefully consider the cost associated with obesity prevention programs.It was found that sixteen percent of youngsters between the ages of 6-19 years were obese in 2016.
Zilanawala and co-analysts in 2013 endeavoured to research the danger of obesity in childhood nearly in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The intercessions utilised were the ethnic characterisations deliver the rate of obesity in the two countries’ children of five years. They acquired information of overweight five years of age children from “Early longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort” and “thousand years Cohort Study” and analysed those. They essentially examined the racial differences’ association with Body Mass Index similar to the typical weight. The components and factors of the study were social, demographical, social and family to demonstrate the aberrations.
The exploration found that in the United Kingdom Black Children Caribbean had a higher proportion of changes in overweight and obesity as in 1.7, Pakistani children had brought down chances proportion as in 0.60 and Black African had the most noteworthy potential odd proportion as in 1.40. In the examination, the United States had no ethnic inconsistencies identified with obesity chances in children given that intercessions display completely balanced. The rate of bulkiness was higher among the Mexican-American youngsters as in 25.5 percent; the Indian-American heavy kids were 23.2 percent and white teenagers, non-Hispanic who had a place with low wage families had a tendency to have fatter kids as contrasted with their age-mates from higher social classes.
Late years have watched that weight-related medical issues introduce in grown-ups have shown up in a younger populace. As indicated by Howel and co-scientists that dietary patterns causing obesity is affected by various factors, for example, families, social insurance administrations accessible, group associations, religion, mass media and instructive organisations as in schools. The investigation recommends that schools alone can’t help diminish the flab rate in kids yet it can’t be halted by and large without the school-based mediations.
Looking into the health interventions associated with a correspondence of health-related issues and the education of health training and healthcare to people. Socio-mental work on the thoughts of dissemination of the health-related problems and matters through mass intervened messages showed up alongside the appearance of technological advancements and diverts in the contemporary society (Katz, Coleman and Menzel, 1966). Researchers from pharmaceutical and nursing fields are more keen on examining the intuitive correspondence between the health mind supplier and recipient and such investigations have dependably been distributed under the head of health correspondence frequently in diaries, for example, “Persistent training and Counseling”. In the current decades two or three new concentration zone have increased hospitable place in health correspondence explore; projection of health-related issues in media content and the part of correspondence innovations in a spread of health issues.
To begin with, the centre territory is that how broad communications; both print and communicate including web-based social networking, present and task health related issues and second region brings together the exploration on data innovation and health mind innovation in the general health (Bowling, 2014). Breaking down the media crusade on general health and their prosperity or disappointment is another measurement of a research centre in healthcare division and mass correspondence. Early research body on health correspondence tends to delineate not an all the time utilisation of quantitative techniques in examinations rather they were utilising the subjective investigation strategies. Throughout the decades, be that as it may, health correspondence examinations have received a more refined approach. Late explores are expansions of the prior reviews or are based upon hypotheses exhibited by those.
Theories grew as of late are much smaller and concentrated on the separate subject of study and factorial outline of examinations are more in vogue when contrasted with the early investigations that broke down single variable at one time. Techniques for the study to make a difference in the creation of specific outcomes. A method utilized as a part of specific research demonstrates our particular comprehension of the health correspondence. Davies in 1990 posited that “The process of obtaining systematic knowledge and technology… can be used for the improvement of the health of individual groups. It provides the basic information on the state of health and disease of the population; it aims to develop tools to prevent and cure illness and mitigate its effects, and it attempts to devise better approaches to health care for the individual and the community.”
The knowledge of the existing research obtained is ought to be developed into an action program if there is need to address a subject, the general focus of research in public health is to find association between the demand of a certain health services and population’ s need for the service, its usage, supply and acceptability. Another focus targets the structures and processes of the health services including the efficiency and quality of the services and the third focus of the public health research has been investigation of effectiveness and appropriateness of various interventions that can assist in improvement of health phenomenon and cost-effectiveness including that what the patients think about the effects on their health. Measurement of health outcomes has been scaled on toxicity, symptom rates, survival periods, quality-adjusted years saved, biochemical indicators, and numerous psychological and physical morbidity and relapses. Social scales of measurement of health-related interventions’ success rate are generally, off days from school or work, admission rates in hospitals and number of days spent in bed.
The overweight health phenomenon is winning in children under age in an all nations around the globe in an undeniable way. Renata et al. (2013) explored the pervasiveness of obesity in school-going children between 6-11 years. The analyst and co-scientists took an example of one hundred and nine schools and directed a cross-sectional study. Nearby on a sample of parents utilising 16,588 polls, a review was directed. The study indicated comes about that were in opposition to the national normal revealed formally. The scientists reasoned that exclusive direct level of obesity wins in the school going children and they additionally prescribed that the phenomenon might be screen assist for a raised level of mindfulness and give participative information to the arrangement creators for the advancement of anticipation strategies for the country. Obesity has reached an epidemic proportion.
Every fifth child in South Africa is estimated to be overweight or obese child. With 20% of youngsters younger than six being overweight. This is essential because of a terrible eating routine and an absence of activity. The point of this investigation is to decide the overweight/heftiness pervasiveness among review one students at chose schools in the West Rand, Mogale City. The weight and tallness of each subject were to be physically estimated by the analyst and contrasted with standards for that age class. This examination additionally expects to decide their folk’s learning/recognition in regards to youth sustenance and physical movement. To this end, a poll was built so parental learning/convictions could be evaluated. This examination has discovered both overweight and underweight inside a similar populace.
The outcomes demonstrate overweight/heftiness in seventeen subjects (3.7%). Eleven young ladies (4.8%) and six young men (3%) were overweight speaking to a kid to young lady proportion of 1: 1.8 among the overweight gathering. Among the overweight subjects, young ladies spoke to 65% while young men spoke to 35%. This examination has likewise discovered underweight/hindering of development among the eight and nine-year-old subjects as their weight for stature fell underneath the 25th percentile. Promote characterisation of the examination test as indicated by school-charge structure uncovered that all subjects with overweight/heftiness were found inside low-expense schools, speaking to 4%. One kid and one young lady each were found with stoutness among the overweight gathering having a weight list (BMI) of 23.8 and 24.8 separately. Like this corpulence was found in 12% among the overweight gathering and inside low-charge structure schools.
Carnell and his co specialists in 2005 researched the impression of overweight among parents of children between 3-5 years old. They took a substantial example of 564 parents and children from the United Kingdom. They got the socioeconomics of children, their stature and weight. The outcomes showed expanded chances of an impression of overweight among parents as just 1.9 % of them having overweight children and 17.1% of stout children could depict overweight. However, some parents were stressed over their overweight children’s odds of getting stout in future. The scientists inferred that parents’ mindfulness on the phenomenon of overweight was poor.
Right now the United Kingdom has an exhaustive approach to liquor and tobacco that is viewed as a standout amongst the most all-around conceived strategies on health issues. Cairney explored a portion of the critical components associated with the active general health crusades on the fulfilment of liquor and examinations the obstacles making issues development in the quest for stringent liquor control. Both liquor and tobacco are legal addictions in the United Kingdom. Researchers from the restorative science and general health disciplines examine the risks related with the utilisation of these both, assemble evidence and promoter the arrangements that are intended to control the liquor and cigarette utilisation and health dangers associated with it (Cairney, 2014).
General health bunches are more worried about examining the about the degree to which the public health arrangements are unforeseen as answers to the issue. They search for the positive relationship of mechanisms gave by the strategies on the lessening of liquor and cigarette. Be that as it may, the reaction has been discovered feeble or lopsided towards the issue by approaches. Strategy reaction may take a very long time to make it expected extent to issue. Cairney’ s examinations propose that there is a hole between arrangement reaction towards liquor and cigarette. UK health approaches concerning alcohol and cigarette utilisation are among the best far and wide (Cairney et al., 2012).
The United Kingdom’ s Department of Health (2009) has contrived rules for healthcare segment and overall population to ensure the health of youthful of the country from 5-19 years old named as Healthy Child Program. The HCP has furnished with the proposals that in what ways distinctive social establishments like family, instruction and healthcare can put aggregate endeavours to considerably enhance life odds of child and youth of the country between 5-19 years. HCP has additionally concocted rules as in great practice system for intercessions and anticipation benefits in the early years of children. The Health Ministry led a review in 2004 named “Each Child Matters” in which youthful children and teenagers recognised basics for their lives which turned into the establishment of Healthy Child Program. These five vitalities of children and young people’s lives are; to be healthy, wellbeing, appreciate and accomplish, make commitments to the general public and gain economic success.
The rule of nonmaleficence in healthcare makes it compulsory to the worries to cause and direct no damage. This guideline is viewed as imperative since the systemized healthcare rehearse exists. It has fitted for healthcare experts to act in helpfulness way, yet if that it isn’t conceivable, they are urged to make no mischief in any event. There is a thin line of distinction between the two ideas, making individuals confound amongst these and think about them as one and a similar thing. Nonmaleficence is a rule that “one should not to perpetrate shrewdness or damage” (Beauchamp and Childress, 2013), though helpfulness is tied in with following the three standards “one should avoid underhandedness or hurt, one should evacuate malice or mischief, one should do or advance great” (Beauchamp and Chidress, 2013).
Public health has attracted scholars from various fields, and a huge body of research has been established in this area. Many public health phenomena associated with social science, psychology, medicine, education, communication and information and public administration have been studied and investigated. Research provides a great deal of help to social and official concerns of public health. Obesity in children has become a public health crisis around the world, and effective interventions are associated with it as prevention and control strategies. Present systematic review attempted to review the government documents and research investigations on the topic.
It is concluded that there are some causes found in the evidence giving rise to childhood obesity but several interventions applied at public level by government and social establishments can help significantly in prevention and control of obesity in children and adolescents. The primary and extended knowledge on health issues in parents and peers is hugely important to reduce or eliminate the causes and prevent the consequences. Studies reviewed suggest that there is a gap between practice and research suggestions as per educating the parents, teachers and other social peers on the subject of overweight, its causes and consequences. Centre for Community Child Health Royal Children’s hospital’ s research team prepared a report for OzChild: Children Australia titled “To promote awareness of the risk factors that contribute to childhood obesity and assess the ability of parents to develop shared strategies to reduce such risks.”
The researchers posited that change of lifestyles of children and adolescents in the developed countries had changed the ways of their physical activities level as well as their eating g and nutritional habits. The interventions studied were physical activity and eating behaviours developed by the influences from family, schools, and socio-economic factors. The report suggested that the nutrition education provided in schools focus not only on educating the kids on nutrition but they should also develop the behaviours and skills related to food-preparation, preservation, socio-cultural aspects of eating and eating habits linked with the personal grooming and positive body image.
Parents are found to be least aware of the overweight and obesity illness in children, the majority of them perceive it either wrong or normal health. They are also unaware of the effects of obesity on a child’ mental health and growth, self-esteem, behavioural modes and social relationships with their fellow kids in schools and playgrounds. Children themselves are not aware that they are suffering from a certain kind of illness that is obesity. Studies also suggest the use of effective communication strategies at public level to raise awareness level on health issues. Mass-mediated education through effective channels and technology as per needs of communities and social sectors is an enormous potential intervention strategy that can raise the health education levels in society. The systematic review help formulate the research questions for further studies.
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