Assessment is a fundamental framework for teaching and learning process. Assessment for and assessment of learning is different that have long enabled teachers to collect tangible evidence that enables them to make strong decisions regarding student progress and achievement. They are not discrete methodologies and might be used together or separately. The distinction between AFL and AOL is usually viewed as parallel to the longstanding separation between formative and summative assessment. To place teacher feedback within the current literature on learning assessment, this report attempts to discuss major issues about AFL and AOL.
In various literature, AFL and AOL have long been viewed as to different concepts. AFL aims at eliciting evidence concerning the amount of knowledge and ability of a certain student. This usually requires the administrative process such as assigning grades or place them in the right classes. (xx). AOL, on the other hand, aims at contributing to overall student learning through the dissemination of information concerning their individual performances. (xxx). While AOL is often conducted at the end of the course, AFL is a continuous process.
The key principles of AFL and AOL as learning strategies have some shared elements. AFL and AOL can be viewed as one of the most promising teaching approaches used to enhance learning. Various studies show that student within those pedagogical approaches improve their achievement and also have a strong self-perception. However, despite the many promises, there have been numerous barriers impending teachers utilising these strategies in their classroom. Time and size of a class are some of the conceptual confusions related to assessment to AFL. Others include misalignment between the priorities of a system and the learning practices among others. These issues pose critical challenges in promoting the implementation of the pedagogical approaches in classrooms.
The concept of formative assessment alone doesn’t deliver to the expectations of both teaching strategies. Through experience, I have learnt that we only position it principles within contexts of pedagogy. However, they do not develop the theory. Xxxxx has explored the transformation that occurs in the classroom of teachers creating formative assessment, and offer hypothetical frameworks for the study of various classrooms. Most of the theoretical frameworks are often stuck in the data collection stage in classrooms and interviews. Moreover, challenges have also been faced on the systematic attempts made to link records to be effective on such topics as school practices.
The grading function of formative assessment is important for all teaching practices. In the United States, students are required to write at least 10 pages report on different topics .mainly single drafts with assessment focusing on the final score of the students obtained during the school year. Apparently, student learning serves a summative objective, with teacher feedback being utilised for evaluating the overall performance of a student in a prospective manner with the opportunity for a student to act on teacher’s feedback. The follow-up sessions are used to shed further light on the functions of teacher feedback. For every teacher, the primary objective of teaching is construed in their individual strategy. Xxx terms development of learning accuracy, which can elaborate precision of feedback received.
Process writing has been recommended by many researchers since it enhances teaching and learning .xxx suggest that teachers often provide feedback on student drafts, focusing on the idea of developing language and style. Therefore, it is recommended against placing to much focus on language. Instead, much focus on adopting updated traditional product-based approaches to the learning process, with the final outcome viewed as a display if learner’s ability to accurately learning by themselves.
Assessment is simply a judgement in various parameters such as standards, criteria, and context among others. Such parameters might be implicit. For instance, in the evaluator’s mind or they might be clear and shared. Xxx contends that “making them clear allows us to understand and thus improving it”. The clear description requires subjective criteria to be right in accordance with the set standards. Therefore, the assessor is able to communicate why and what main concern are embedded in the assessment or the final results. Xxx poised that “ with the concept of formative assessment, there are multiple criterions, that focus on the significance of sharing the principle criteria above being cognizant of the basic that only come into play during the evaluation of social and behavioural sciences.”
Within the formative assessment concept, assessment might be represented in a summative judgement such as grades or marks, based on the agreed scale. This is later used to justify the final judgement. Teacher feedback requires all feedbacks to be used for it to a justified feedback: otherwise, it is just information from the assessor. Therefore, it is important to understand the key parameters and information from the assessor as the principal condition for formative feedback. Xxx argues that AFL and AOL require implicit or explicit judgement to offer feedback which might be utilised as formative feedback. The author provides the formula to represent this: SA + feedback = FA
The formula provides a clear definition of the important terms of assessment, how they relate to each other and the key processes which connect them. In this framework, assessment is defined as a process and does not incorporate any form of functionality. Therefore, the process of formative assessment can only take place when feedback has been utilised to improve work. This is the theory which can be utilised to elaborate Assessment for learning because it supports the key principles of the strategy. In addition, it provides clarifications to the processes and thus allows to be improved.
For teachers, it usually involves a huge transformation of their roles, from a content presenter to a practitioner of improved pedagogy.as a result, there is a shared responsibility for learning between the teachers and students. Xxx through the theory of proximal development indicates that “the key objective of teaching is encouraging the students to be independent of the teacher.” Assessment of learning often involves the teacher aligning to a set of procedures that allow the student to work independently in a certain field. During the learning process, learners are assisted to set their individual goals based on the assessment information. This makes learning decisions to be associated with their own improvement thus developing a better understanding of quality work. Student assess themselves and seek the appropriate ways if taking them to the next level of learning. Even though the theories under the AOL have been discussed for a long period, there is limited information on how the strategy can be implemented. The AOL framework is often proposed with the objective of bridging the gap between theory and practices.
The pedagogies used by a teacher could significantly affect the quality of student learning. Education is a constant search for innovation that results in improved teaching practices with a goal of improving student learning. The quite noticeable in all the transformation is that those in need of various solutions, models and other guidance. Such frameworks are necessary to enhance improvement as the offer a clear way of examining various possibilities. They allow focussing the attention of the key elements of teaching and learning that are primary to all individual theories. The offer well-defined ways of describing and explaining teaching and learning process with the support of ontological perspectives.
Xxx indicates that a well-developed framework should offer strong connections between theory and practice that should inspire teachers. Framework development require high strategic alertness. Strategic alertness direct focus on the previous unattended factors by using a selected frame of reference. The newly designed framework will, therefore, help in focusing and offering new ways of conceptualising teaching and learning. The AOL intends to look at the idea of teaching from a new angle – assessment in respect to learners taking active roles in their individual learning.
Even though the structures of a framework can be different, in developing a new framework, it is important to understand the expectations as well as the reality of the situation. Xxx provides that “the approach towards developing a new framework under AOL should start by defining the expectations.” This is preceded by observing the reality surrounding the new domain and a comparative analysis of the two.
The Contextual theory within the AoL Pedagogy posits that government policies are embedded in the development of students’ “students learning how to learn”. The main objective of is to make assessment a framework for activating independent learning. The concept emphasises on taking assessments as a process of metacognition for students. Assessment policies often revolve around learning processes, mainly focusing on the students. Official documentation might contain comprehensive guidelines on the role of teachers in the learning process.
Drawing on the government assessment framework, the learning assessment can focus on improving student’s ability to learn. For instance, the process can help in enhancing their critical thinking. Further, directions can be provided to provide better opportunities for learners both in their individual capacity and in groups. This would help to reflect and analyse their overall performance and adopt new frameworks to move forward to the next learning process.
The Societal concept
In this theory, one would like to see that the society views assessment as a tool for the development of new abilities to deal with different challenges in life. Teachers should understand that the fact that numbers are shown in the documentation only depict several qualities of the student. Therefore, it is important to understand that assessment is not basically a way of evaluating a student’s performance. They need to recognise that assessment is primarily a responsibility of the learners and the student, with much emphasis on the latter. Therefore, this would facilitate both psychological and mental readiness of the students towards dealing with individual assessment while the student is under their care.
Learners should realise that learning assessment is opportunities for them to develop independent learning. Moreover, they would also understand that assessment processes are just tools to assist them in monitoring learning progress and the level they are at. With updated information, students will focus on improving their work as well as acknowledge the significance of the internal processes of assessment and utilise external assessment as a necessity for support.
The concept of communication of the AOL would like to see in the society develop a consensus of the function in enhancing learning in assessment. Assessment is presented to the various parties as a tool which learners and teachers can utilise in enhancing the learning process. Teachers act as the supporters of the learning process, guiding and assisting them in developing the right attitude about learning. Through different forms of discussion between the learners and the teachers, students are made to understand the quality of work. Moreover, they are offered the opportunity to establish the ability to check their progress against the set standards and come up with the appropriate plans to improve once they meet the standards.
The action domain in another theoretical concept under AOL, when used in daily teachings, teachers can utilise multifaceted assessment framework to offer students with different forms of the learning experience. Teachers choose, develop better assessment methods for use based on the individual needs of the learners and different styles. They offer individual assessment techniques for learners and help them develop the high-quality individual assessment. Educators can try utilising smaller tasks in order to make prompt feedback possible.
Assessment feedback must be constructive with the principal objective of acknowledging student accomplishments. This would help them understand what they have achieved and how to improve from there. Through written communication or dialogue, teachers can assist students the most appropriate strategies which would be useful for their learning. For students, the actions will involve significant evolvement in their individual learning process. Within the concept of action domain, learners will be supported to understand various standards. For instance, the standards would require detailed explanation and what they entail. Student establish their individual learning goals for assignment and select the appropriate strategies to complete an assignment. They document the progress and note some of the key issues that require more attention. This might be followed by working out ways of improving their work.
Both learning frameworks are built through the integration of four different theoretical concepts: social, communication and actions. In the assessment of learning, the three concepts are integrated in a dynamic manner, with a constant change in definition, plans of actions and a better understanding of various societal perception in different contexts. All the evolving definition are aimed at assisting students to take an active role in the learning process so that they can be more capable of tackling their own individual challenge in and beyond classwork.
The findings in this report demonstrate that teacher feedback emphasises largely on summative writing, with the objective of learning, rather than just focusing assessment for learning. Therefore, using feedback as a pedagogy to improve teaching and learning. This report calls for the emphasis on the implementation of both AOL and AFL in the writing study, particularly use of feedback for formative assessment.
Despite the gradual changes in the development of school-based curricula and teaching practices, there has been a significant increase in the emphasis on student participation in the learning process. Therefore, a formative approach to learn and develop in accordance with the set standards and instructions. Most of the current assessments and teaching practices often encourage students to showcase their current skills and understanding of their passive role in the assessment process, rather than encouraging critical thinking and being active in their individual learning. The assessment as a learning process puts more emphasis on the student’s role and highlight the use of learning assessment to improve the ability of the learner to be independent.
Based on the report, we can suggest a collaborative approach between teachers, assessment experts and students in planning assessment programmes. With such an approach, professional learning would confront the often challenging terrain of learning and implement better learning assessment in learning institutions in the context of competing for social, political and economic issues. Moreover, we can also suggest that an emphasis on skill development, which educators acquire the skills and reflect through the various challenges in the integration of assessments and their responsibility in facilitating meaningful assessment programs in classrooms.
Assessment for Learning in the United States is one of the key priorities in learning the English language. The oral assessment is school-based s secondary 4 and 5 is one of the latest initiative put in place to promote AOL and AFL. Research on Alf is gradually growing in learning the English language in the United States this includes xxx on Assessment for learning and xxx on school-based assessment in higher grades. In writing sessions, several initiatives have been implemented to assess different learning strategies. This includes, portfolios, conferencing and checklists.