Art can be described as a wide range of diverse human activities in different fields of visual creation, auditory, artworks performances, imaginative or technical expressions by artists to promote and appreciate the beauty and sensitive power. Art can be not been defined in a definition as there are different tastes and interpretations of art. Artistic expressions can be shown from a variety of ways like crafts, fine arts and performing arts. However, a form of art is not always considered as art by the public as comic art was not part of fine arts earlier, many universities are offering Comic Art degrees nowadays. In general, art activities include the study of art history, production and representation of art, criticism of and about art, art discussions and artistic dispersal of art.
An art historian Ems Gombrich proposes that there are three fields of artwork which aren’t necessarily hostile; connoisseurs, critics and academic art historians (Gombrich, 1996). In art history, there are serval cultural and critical art theories practised in 20th and 21st century. The historical trends may be helpful or get benefited from the written word but historians relied on methods of art; formal analysis, iconography, psychoanalysis and semiotics. An art theory counts to be natural phenomenon or form of cultural changes that visually represents or through artistic styles that do not only depicts the nature but also questions the subject matter and searching (Wilde, 2002).
The historians adopt various methods in their research of subject matter and into their history. The study of semiotics and symbols focuses on the signification of objects and transmit it into the various visual and contextual clues and it is signified as the behaviour of communication. Semiotics not only signified the symbols but also focuses on how it implied and being perceived in the society. This allows the artists to observe the subject matter and related phenomenon in the context in which they occurred. To examine the work through an analysis of form, artists and historians used the line, colours, shapes, textures to examine the two or three-dimensional pictures, sculpture or architectural piece. These elements can be presented as abstract or realistic with the representation and non-representation of the elements.
Cultural and Critical Art theories in 20th and 21st Century
By representational art theory, the object is imitating or displaying the historically persistent realistic aspects of work in the widest sense. This particular representational account portrays the visible forms of nature, drawings of animals and elicitation of entire scenery in sun or storm. The representational theory is not limited to just depiction of art rather it may turn the object from art to a form of metaphysics. The researchers claim that although art representation may seem straightforward in the detailed philosophical stage, it can be a problem of complexity as well (Wollheim, 1987). Therefore, critics say that representational theory must rebind the attention from the artwork and its idiosyncratic values.
The iconographical analysis focuses on the particular design of an object and the careful reading makes possible to trace the lineage, and the meaning or conclusions can be drawn regarding the origins of them. The roots of iconography that mean symbols of writing can be found in written sources of scripture and mythology rather it is a broader term that represents all symbols, can be and cannot a context-specific text (Nelson and Shiff, 2010). However, semiotics is concerned with the creation of its own meaning as opposed to iconography. The interpretation of a work can be made on the identification of denoted meaning which the recognition of cultural associations (Nelson and Shiff, 2010). As the main concern of semiotic art is to introduce and derive new ways to direct and interpret the connoted meaning of discussed objects (Nelson and Shiff, 2010).
Many art historians have employed critical theory for the inquiry of objects. This theory relates to the criticism of society and culture as a reflective judgement based on the knowledge of from social sciences. This theory relates to the application of literary scholars discussing the feminism, maxims, critical race, queer and postcolonial theories in this discipline. These theories are discussed in the critical theory literature as the main concern about nature and environment but the direction of discussion is yet to be determined.
As an expression, art can be expressed in many forms. Music expresses the emotions, feelings and moods of individuals or some event of melancholy, poem, sculpture, a drama scene or situation does same. The art expression theory follows the romanticism where it is not only about sensation but also attitudes, expectations, stress, disappointment, excitements and relaxing. Art argues that what an admirer feels while experiencing an art and what that art piece depicts or describes is the main concern the makes the human affective correspondents. Therefore, in the mid-twenties, the boom in theatre and music was experienced because artists and art historians believe the human emotions can be derived from the expression of art. However, the critics on expression theory argue that expression are important may be but there are other factors which are essential to art creation and appreciation. Critics believe that if art expresses anything it can be expressed through emotion felt for the pure form of art (Bell, 1972) so that form is the primary concern.
Formalism theory relates to the comparisons of form and style as Nick Zangwill referred that in art there are properties that can be described by sensory or physical elements so that these properties in question have no relation with other things and surroundings (Zangwill, 2001). The historians believe that “every form of an object is either figure or play”. Therefore, temporal arts presents the brief melodies and bodies that partially focuses on the formal structuring. A formal analysis describes the things carefully that may include subjective terminology, escorted by the illustrations so there is no doubt. In the 21st century, it is observed that artworks have formal and informal categories that have been delineated in three forms of formalism; extreme formalists, moderate formalism and anti-formalist (Zangwill, 2001). Here, extreme forThmalists are those people who believe that all art is purely based on formal work, moderate formalism believes that artwork may have formal aesthetic properties for selected class rather there are many artworks which are non-formal so none of them can be ignored, and anti-formalists are those people who think that no artwork has formal aesthetic properties (Zangwill, 2001).
The development of traditions has demanded that the created objects are required to be observed and looked at in an independent way. Therefore, an artwork needs to be embraced and appreciate in accordance with its functionality and traditional aspect. The historical art theories proposed that when something is conceived as art, it must be related to an existing art institution. The institutional theory of art focuses on the nature of art that makes the object able to be noticed in art contact and it should be part of art institution which is artworld (Kennick, 1964).
Contemporary Art Practices
The contemporary art is art formed by the artists in late 20th or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in the culturally diverse, globally and technically advanced world where contemporary art provided them with an opportunity to depict the art skills of society, culture and relevant issues.The today’s art is very dynamic and uses certain fields and diverse working methods, concepts, traditional boundaries, national or international media ways and subjects. Contemporary art is renowned for the lack of uniformity, ideology and principle subject matters because it is part of the global cultural dialogue and large contextual structures that represent the human relations and identity concerns.
For modern art and contemporary art, there is a difference between these two terms although they interchangeable. Modern art refers to the period between the 1880s and 1960s whereas, contemporary art was developed after 1960s (Danto and Goehr, 1997). Modern art actually draws concentration on the subjective representation of the subject rather than realism that was focused before the 1880s so modern art torn apart the art from its conventional forms. On another hand, contemporary art is created by the artists who are alive and they created the major social, political, cultural impact across the world. The recent under discussion topics on world forum lie global warming, cultural identity, environmental devastation, human rights were echoed in the contemporary arts. Therefore, unlike modern art, contemporary art has made a mass social impact and artists have expressed their feelings, thoughts and intentions for freedom and liberty movements through their arts.
The contemporary art practices are being carried out reflecting the diversity or world artistic themes as work it doesn’t have one point of view or single on the objective. It is rather more complex, multi-faceted and complexes that reflects the human life and world’s patterns as we can relate to it. In today’s world, globalization, technology, politics, culture, society, businesses, institutional critiques and human rights movements are main themes of contemporary art (Robertson and McDaniel, 2013). However, contemporary art practice is being developed in important roles by Marxist theory, post-modernism, feminism, post-structuralism, modernism disciplines.
Modernism is a movement that relates to the cultural trends and changes that were observed in the west during late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is a philosophical movement that points to see the word in an up-to-date way and having modern and new thoughts, personality or action with new standards. Among the factors that moulded the modernism during industrial transformation and enlightenment era (Moghaddam and Rahman, 2012). Modernism includes activities related to art, literate, religious faith, social organization and architecture, generally. Modern artists employed new ways of experiments with the materials and art functions that were seen in traditional way before. Although it is very tough to describe modernism and post-modernism apart as they are closely linked, however, modernism the period of modern art-enactment of traditional art.
The term of modernism and modern art are related and generally used to narrate the art succession movements that were identified by historians and critics in abstract art developments in the 1960s. The key movement of modernism related to art was Gustav Courbet realism (McConkey, 1989) that that challenged the myths and historical trends being followed in the art for centuries. Over the span of years, artists of this era had focused on the intrinsic qualities of their way of expressing art e.g. lines, shaped, a color that changed the inherited notions of art.
Post-modernism is a philosophical movement that was observed in the contradict of some facets of modernism. The progress in modernism introduced certain scientific developments which had their terminal effects along. This situation and ethics of west were also questioned by critics and the increase in criticism. The postmodernism relates to the trends that were prompted by reaction and rejection of modernism events. The general observations of modernism were medium specificity, originality and universality and postmodernism reacted to these events. Postmodern art rejects the concept of advancement and progress in regard to the myth of avant-grade where people and works are medically related to culture (Picchione, 2004). Additionally, postmodern art is its blend of high and low socio-culture through the industrial resources. In essence of postmodernism, it blurs the differences between the art and its fine or high forms (Felluga, 2003).
The postmodern art questioned and vetoed the established practices with regard to the artist’s roles in the artistic process. This term was coined and introduced was 1979 that is familiar with the images from pop and consumer culture and also mass media that questions society. The artists of this era also included minorities and women which were ignored and neglected before. For instance, Claes Oldenburg malformed acquainted objects like apple cores and hamburger into the huge sculpture in that period.
Performative art represents the world’s social patterns and function through the social movements and actions through diverse fields like law, gender, performance studies, linguistics and philosophies. This art was described by John L. Austin who is a philosopher of language who defined performative art as the capacity of speech and communication that perfect an action. This concept has also been employed in the fields of science, economics, technology and sociology. This performative art helps the artists to improve the function of “selling yourself” as the artists are the performer who creates and depicts arts of beauty and sensitive power.The performative art allows doing things in an artistic way e.g. music performances and theater.
The theories describing performative art has been extended to various disciplines. As video art relates to this phenomenon as José Esteban Muñoz has discussed performativity theories in a related video. Although video art is not facing to face or live performance that produces immediate effects rather it is mediated and raise concerns about performativity. In contextual perspective, publications were made on the illustration and graphic art that represent the artist’s skill to sell products, skills and particular announcements through art.
Site-specific art is related to a location or place that artists used to illustrate for a specific purpose. This type of art is produced for commercial purpose or individual work also that can be seen in form of stencil graffiti. The work of art was introduced in a site so that art could depict the circumstances of a particular setting comprises of unique elections that include, length, weights, walls, floor, texture or temperature (Kwon, 2004).
In the examples, environmental art linked with the specific setting (place) and the subject being magnifying can be promoted. The outdoor site-specific can be dance performances in a site like cultural art festivals representing the folk dances of to pay tributes. Therefore, a site-specific art is designed on and for a specific location. The purpose can be the commercial or any individual, as mentioned before, but if the location is removed, the art piece will lose the significant part of its creation and meaning.
Medium Specificity Art
The medium specificity is related to the capacity and quality of something to be specific in character or in operation. The term is associated with the Greenberg who defined it that ability of an artist to express a unique characteristic of an object showing the pure form of it that also depicts the artist’s ability to manipulate the characteristics of particular objects. For instance, artist promotes the abstraction rather than illusionism in his/her object while practising medium specificity (Schwartz and Przyblyski, 2004).
In recent times, artistic practices are key easy to investigate artworks, media-specific analysis (Hayles, 2001). In the emergence of new mass media in recent times, it is very important to keenly analyse the role of medium specificity. This concept supports the notion that an artwork can only be successful if it contains the medium that was used to bring it into the existence. In simple words, we can not say that a painting is figurative because paints, colours and canvas, all are flat. All the artist need it to critically engaged the observer with his material.
The concept of public art is related to the all forms of media which are planned and implemented with the purpose to be staged in a physical location, outdoor and available to all. Public art is important for the practitioner of arts and art world that intentions to involve the community, promote the working practice of some specific site and execute the purpose with overall collaboration. As discussed, public art is accessible to the public and people enjoy it on an outside physical location that exhibits the art in public space, however, it is not always easy and simple to conduct such events. The main concern of the audience is to engage the audience and the content of what the art is being exhibited. It is equally more important that people would perceive what the artists intention to convey to them as the attraction of physical location where art is being demonstrated (Krause, 2008).
The notion of public art experienced radical change while following the civil right movements being practised in public space in the 1970s, urban regeneration and artistic intervention programs joined hands to revise the concept of sculpture (Krauss, 1979). In the recent times, the public art has embraced the immensely positive response where its practice and application has broadened its scope. The monuments, civil statutory, memorials are old forms of public art which used to officially recognised. In recent times, public art has been performed to create awareness, to symbolise the events and incidents, to advertise the products and services and also for the well-being of the society. The public art has been crucial for the representation of social areas and allows the audience to make direct contact with the public and also get their response at moment. The notions of environmental public art curated public arts and digital public art are forms of public art.
Public and Private Art Museums
Art museums are the art galleries having a permanent collection of art objects in a space or building for the exhibition. These art objects are painting, costumes, ornaments, sculptures, photographic etc. Beside this installation of permanent visual art, the museums are used to perform the artistic activities e.g. folk music, performing art or poetry readings. There are two types of museums; private and public galleries. Public art museums are non-profit displaying a limited outline of arts while private museums exhibit the art collections for commercial purpose or selling art. The public art museum has to follow the legal rules and ethical standards as per government institutions, However, both types host temporary exhibitions including borrowing art objects to promote the work of art. The exhibition of art in museums can also be promoted online intervention. For instance, Museum of Modern Art, Metropolitan Museum Art and Library of Congress are some names for the online art museums.
The art museums are subject to various concepts as from the 1970s, many politicians and commentators have followed that art museum has a special relation with social and cultural aspects. The researcher explains that cultural capital has the main impact on social mobility because museums are focusing on the people with high-status jobs. The argument also states that museums exclude the taste of social class with fewer opportunities (Gretton, 1985). This issue drives the attention of public museums are they are not for profit and the mission of such art galleries is to promote the traditional and historical trends displayed through art objects in ancient and recent times.
Audience Engagement: Role of Artists and Media
The concept of the audience in the art is related to the people in front of whom art is presented. Thee expression theory of art describes that art expresses the emotions and these emotions are elicited by the observers (audience) (Zangwill, 1999). The researchers believe that all art theories have been proposed to make a significant reference to the audience (Zangwill, 1999). The artist’s key concern is to involve the audience in his/her art by creating a sense of engagement. Over the years, the world has discussed the concept of engagement as it is a long-term approach that is designed to encourage the audience to promote their relationship with artists and art groups. The purpose of audience engagement is to increase the ‘sales traffic’ for the private art galleries whole focusing on art mainly.
The role of art producers, entertainers and art agencies is very crucial for the promotion of art. The role of art agencies is to employ different ways that improve and strengthen certain societies by creating a considerable impact on social life through art. The artists and media undertake certain activities called community engagement, the involvement of organizations to design deep relationships between them and communities for mutual benefit by the articulation of art-friendly policies. Therefore, artists play an important role in the development of cultural identities as well as globalization because they are the one who is driving the media and conveying images to the general public.
In the recent phase of globalization, artists and institutions are focusing on the particular trends and promoting the tastes of particular social classes that are being disseminated to following levels. For example, the same kind of western music is being promoted through social networking media channels in the world and the art being promoted is positioned to attract the high privileged class. This type of artistic representation is blurring the phenomenon of cultural identities and promoting the ethnic concerns which can caste determine the impact on society.
Every day, millions of the people are engaging the audience through cultural and artistic interventions as art has been an important factor in the social life survival. The art has been observed, presented, analysed, criticized and examined over the years through different magnifying glasses and socio-cultural phases. Every field of human life is being influenced by the art and its credentials. This paper has discussed the evolution of modern art and its following era which the discussion on types, theories, aspects, public, private and commercial orientations. The role of artists, audience, organizations and institutions has been also been under concerned while analyzing their impact through the lens of culture, society and global perspectives.
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