Anemia is a condition that is characterized by insufficient healthy red blood cells to transport oxygen to all tissues of the body. There are various types of anemia that vary depending on the cause. General symptoms of anemia include dizziness, fatigue, pale skin, headaches, and shortness of breath, insomnia and unusual rapid heartbeat. Anemia can range from mild to severe and can be other long term or temporary. There are different treatments that can be administered for the treatment of anemia. The treatments range from undergoing medical procedures while others only require taking supplements and other types by eating a healthy diet.
Identify the type of anemia he has.
From the case, the patient is suffering from aplastic anemia. This condition is common in the aged and it occurs when one’s body ceases producing sufficient new blood cells. This type of anemia makes the patient feel fatigued, uncontrolled bleeding, and susceptible to infections. Some of the symptoms evident in this patient that are associated with aplastic anemia include shortness of breath, fatigue, sleeping all the time, feeling weak, cool skin, pale skin and a low hemoglobin concentration (Young, & Maciejewski, 2018). Treatment for aplastic anemia includes administering medication, blood transfusion or bone marrow transplant. In this case the patient has been advised to have a blood transfusion which is common for patients ailing from aplastic anemia.
Describe which blood types he can receive safely and why these are compatible with his Type B+.
The patient in the case has blood type B positive. Therefore he can safely receive blood from donors with blood types B+, B-, O+ and O-. The patient can receive from blood type O because it has neither A nor B antigens but has both A and B antibodies. Therefore, O type is compatible with B positive because it does not have any antigens that can antagonize with the immune system. This is the reason those with blood type O- are referred to as universal donors therefore it lacks proteins and their red cells can express neither A nor B sugars nor the RhD antigens hence cannot cause a reaction and consequently clumps to the recipient. The patient can receive from the B blood type because no new antigens are introduced to the plasma hence no reaction will occur.
Describe the blood types he cannot receive and why they are incompatible with Type B+.
However, there are some other blood types that the patient in this case cannot receive blood from being B+. They include blood type A-, A+, AB-, and AB+ (Kabat, 2013). A person with blood group B has anti-A antibodies and B antigens in the blood. Blood type A should not be transfused to blood type B because the anti-A antibodies in the B group will attack the group A cells. The blood types A or AB cells have naturally occurring antibodies that are proteins that form part of the immune response are likely to result in a transfusion reaction that is serious and can be even fatal resulting to death. Similarly, it is not safe for his patient with blood type B+ to receive blood from A or AB red cells since it may result to the clumping of blood. If incompatible group of blood cells are introduced during a transfusion, the donor cells will attack the immune system of the recipient hence resulting in various conditions including kidney failure, shock, and even death (Berséus et al, 2013).
Explain the transfusion reactions he may experience if he receives incompatible blood products.
Blood transfusions are lifesaving but in some instances they may be lethal if the blood of the donor is not accurately matches to the blood type of the recipient. When the blood type becomes incompatible to the recipient it can result in a transfusion reaction. Even though these reactions are rare, they can be dangerous to your lungs and kidneys. Transfusion reaction occurs when the antibodies in the blood of the recipient launches an attack to those in the donor blood red cells when the two are incompatible. When the recipient’s immune system attacks those of a donor, the reaction is termed as hemolytic.
Also, if the patient in this case receives blood from an incompatible donor group, an allergic reaction to the blood transfusion may occur. This reaction occurs when an existing IgE antibody connects to its respective antigen hence triggering the release of histamine. Some of the symptoms associated with this reaction include itchiness and hiving. The allergic reaction is often treated by administering antihistamines to the patient. Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (AHTR) which commonly occurs when a recipient receives blood from blood groups that are not compatible with his or her blood group (Green, 2016). For instance, if the patient in this case having blood group B+ receives blood from either A or AB this reaction is likely to occur. This reaction often occurs within 24 hours of the blood transfusion. The patient is likely to report of burning sensation after the infusion alongside with back pains, fever, chills and flanks.
In conclusion, Anemia is associated with reduced number of red blood cells resulting to low hemoglobin. It is prevalent to people of all ages. There are different types of anemia depending on the cause hence there are different treatments for varying types of anemia. Blood transfusion is crucial and it saves life. Therefore, it the role of clinicians to avoid the risks associated with blood transfusion among incompatible blood groups. To lower the risks of transfusion reaction blood banks are advised to screen and test blood accurately. Also, before the transfusion, a sample of the donor’s blood should be mixed with that of the recipient to test for compatibility. Before blood is infused to the recipient, the blood label and the identity of the patient should be carefully checked to ensure the nurse or doctor gives the proper blood products to the right blood recipient.
Berséus, O., Boman, K., Nessen, S. C., & Westerberg, L. A. (2013). Risks of hemolysis due to anti‐A and anti‐B caused by the transfusion of blood or blood components containing ABO‐incompatible plasma. Transfusion, 53(S1).
Green, D. (2016). Management of Transfusion Reactions. NEJM Journal Watch. Oncology and Hematology.
Kabat, E. A. (2013). Blood group substances: their chemistry and immunochemistry. Elsevier.
Young, N. S., & Maciejewski, J. P. (2018). Aplastic anemia. In Hematology (Seventh Edition) (pp. 394-414).